Essay Pg Number

 by Chelsea Lee

All APA Style in-text citations have two parts: the author and the date. Some in-text citations also include page numbers (or other location information when page numbers are not available, as with some online materials). This post describes when and how to include page numbers in APA Style for different kinds of citations as well as how to include the appropriate location information in lieu of page numbers when page numbers are not available.

Direct Quotations

A direct quotation reproduces the words of another writer verbatim and is displayed in quotation marks (if the quotation is fewer than 40 words) or as a block quotation (if the quotation is 40 words or more). When you include a direct quotation in a paper, include the author, date, and page number on which the quotation can be found (or other location information) in the citation.

Research has found that “romantic partners maintain both biased and realistic views of a core relationship trait: physical attractiveness” (Solomon & Vazire, 2014, p. 524).

Solomon and Vazire (2014) found that “romantic partners maintain both biased and realistic views of a core relationship trait: physical attractiveness” (p. 524).

There are many ways to cite a direct quotation; see more examples here.

Paraphrases

A paraphrase restates someone else’s words in a new way. For example, you might put a sentence into your own words, or you might summarize what another author or set of authors found. When you include a paraphrase in a paper, you are required to include only the author and date in the citation. You are encouraged (but not required) to also provide the page number (or other location information) for a paraphrased citation when it would help the reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text (such as when you use only a short part of a book). The examples below show a citation for a paraphrase that includes the page number.

Just as Sherlock Holmes investigates a case, psychologists must evaluate all the available data before making a deduction, lest they jump to an erroneous conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence (Bram & Peebles, 2014, pp. 32–33).

Bram and Peebles (2014) advocated for psychologists to evaluate all the available data before making a deduction, just as Sherlock Holmes investigates a case, lest they jump to an erroneous conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence (pp. 32–33).

There are many ways to paraphrase material; here are more examples and some advice.

How to Cite Material Without Page Numbers

If the cited material does not have page numbers (such as may occur with some e-books) and you need them for an in-text citation, use any of the following location information instead:

  • a paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document;
  • an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or
  • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full, plus a paragraph number within that section.

People planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure they have adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).

Chamberin (2014, para. 1) stated that people planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure they have adequate support from family and friends.

Learn More

For more on quoting and paraphrasing in APA Style, please see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., §§ 6.03–6.09).

References

Bram, A. D., & Peebles, M. J. (2014). Psychological testing that matters: Creating a road map for effective treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14340-000

Chamberlin, J. (2014, January). Retiring minds want to know. Monitor on Psychology, 45(1). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/01/retiring-minds.aspx

Solomon, B. C., & Vazire, S. (2014). You are so beautiful . . . to me: Seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 516–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036899

 

[12 pt, Times New Roman, Double-spaced, center, bold]
[Press enter 6 times]







Title 
[Press enter 7 times]










Your name
[Press enter 7 times]

















Grade  Course
Teacher's Name
Day  Month  Year


Paper

Paper must be white, 81/2 “X 11” , and stapled together in the left-hand corner.

All papers should be double-spaced and typed, if possible. The writing on first page should begin about 1/4 of the way down the page. All pages should be numbered except the title page and the first page. Page numbers should be placed in the upper right-hand corner. 


Referencing within your essay

In research papers or any other writing that borrows information from other sources, the borrowed information must be clearly documented. Quotations, summaries, statistics or anything not considered common knowledge is called borrowed information. The easiest way of documenting your sources is to use in-text citations. The reference is given in the text of the paper instead of using footnotes or endnotes. This means that your place your source on parenthesis (brackets) immediately after the borrowed information in your text and before any line punctuation.

The information contained in the citation should be as follows:

( Author’s last name page number)

e.g. (Collins 134)

No comma is required between the two pieces of information.

If you are citing a work without a named author, use either the title of the book or the title of the article in place of the author’s name. Remember that titles of books need to be underlined or in italics and that titles of articles should be placed in “quotation marks”.

If you are citing an Internet site, you may simply put the word Internet in brackets. If you have more than one Internet site in your works cited list, you must put the website URL in brackets.



Works Cited page

Title this page Works Cited. This page should be numbered, as should all other pages in your essay (except the first page which should not be numbered), in the upper right hand corner. Leave two lines in between the title of the page and your first source. Sources should be placed in alphabetical order on this page by last names of the author(s). If a source has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an or the.

Do not indent the first line of each entry, but indent each subsequent line (use the TAB key). Put a space between each entry.


Quotations

Short quotations (three lines or less) are included within the text of the essay. 

e.g.
The Buddhist faith had a very interesting start. “In the beginning Buddha found enlightenment under the bodhi tree, near what is now Nepal” (McDowell 75).

Long quotations (three lines or more) are set apart from the text of the essay, as follows:

Devout Buddhists follow the teachings of the Four Noble truths an Eightfold Path. Each contains the essence that units all Buddists today: Life is full of suffering; that most of that suffering, including the fear of earth, can be traced to “desire”, the man’s habit of seeing everything through the prism of the self and its well-being; that this craving can be transcended, leading to peace and eventually to an exalted state of full enlightenment called Nirvana (McDowell 71).


Outline

The following information should be included in your outline. Remember to keep words and phrasing consistent; for example, if you write your first main topic in sentence form, write everything else in sentence form. 

Topic of essay

I. First main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. Second main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Third main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion



Example (topic is a person)

Leonardo da Vinci

I. Who
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. What / When / Where / How
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Why
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion - summary



Example (topic is an event)

September 11, 2001

I. What / When / Where / How
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. Who
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Why
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion - summary

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