|Writing a critique of another person's argument|
© 2003Theodore Gracyk
What is an argument critique?
How do I get started?
Challenging their premises/assumptions
Identifying a hole in the argument
Challenging the conclusion
A brief example
Click here for a sample essay Click here for another
A critique is an evaluation. A critique or critical essay evaluates what someone has said.
Some critiques are analyses of writing, as when one critiques a novel or poem for an English course.
This outline covers a different kind of critique, a critique of the person's thinking. Thinking cannot be strictly divorced from matters of language use, but here we are going to focus on evaluation of the rationality of a person's position, not on evaluation of the person's facility in communicating it. To put it crudely, this sort of critique focuses on content and not presentation.
The simplest type of argumentative essay is one that simply criticizes the position of an opponent. There are only a limited number of strategies to adopt with this sort of essay.
Your thesis will be very straightforward. It will take one of these forms:
Before you start writing, study and take apart their argument for their position. You are looking for the parts of their argument.
An argument consists of three things:
(Premises are reasons they give to prove that they're correct. Conclusions are anything they give reasons to believe. Some of these conclusions are likely to be used as premises for later conclusions. Assumptions are undefended beliefs they hold in order for the argument to make sense.)
There are three basic strategies for criticizing the argument once you have identified it.
Let's review these one by one.
1. Deprive them of their premises and/or assumptions
The simplest critique will focus
There are three basic strategies for showing that we should not agree to a premise or assumption.
- We can give good reasons to regard it as false.
- We can show that it directly contradicts something we know is true.
- We can show that there are no good reasons to believe it.
The first two of these three strategies are simpler than the third. The third involves reviewing all of the reasons that someone might give for the claim and then showing that all of those reasons are weak. Obviously, this is very time-consuming. It's much simpler to argue that the claim is false or contradicts something we know is true.
So how do you show that a claim is false?
These are best strategies for arguing that a premise or assumption is false:
- Describe a personal experience you've had that shows it is false.
- Cite a reliable authority who says it is false.
- Assume that it is true and then show that this assumption leads to something else that is false or highly questionable. (Technically, this is to construct a reductio ad absurdum.)
2. Show that there's a hole in the argument
(show that the conclusion simply does not follow from what has been said)
Sometimes we cannot find good objections to the premises and assumptions, but we can show that the conclusion does not really follow from the ones offered by the arguer. This happens when the evidence might be true, but the arguer does not offer enough of it or the right kind. Perhaps their evidence only supports a different but weaker thesis.
For example, the arguer might want to argue that there is nothing wrong with eating meat. Their premise in defense of this thesis is that it is traditional to eat meat in our culture. We can respond that the truth of the premise does not demonstrate the conclusion. Human slavery is also a traditional practice, but hardly demonstrates that there is nothing wrong with human slavery. Since tradition does not justify slavery, it doesn't justify eating meat, either.
Here is another example, from philosophy: Some philosophers contend that innate ideas do not exist. As evidence they point to mathematics as a candidate for innate ideas and then point out that nobody has ever seen a newborn baby doing mathematical calculations. We might respond that the evidence is true, but point out that we don't see evidence of it because newborns can't talk and can't manipulate objects that allow them to draw diagrams and write out math problems. Their inability to do these things might still allow them have innate mathematical ideas in advance of being able to communicate them in the usual ways.
The more you know about argument fallacies and what it takes to put together a strong argument, the easier it is to critique arguments.
3. Show that the conclusion itself is not believable
This approach ignores the premises and assumptions in favor of focusing attention on the conclusion. The problem with this strategy is that you will have to have a very good reason to deny the conclusion is true when you cannot point to flaws in the reasoning that supports it! It suggests that you are just being stubborn and refusing to look at the evidence! About the only thing that you can do in this case is to construct a powerful reductio ad absurdum. Other strategies (offering evidence that it is false, or showing that reliable authorities reject it) are weak here because they still leave the opponent's evidence right where it was, supporting the conclusion, leaving the impression that there are good arguments both ways. We might conclude that the matter is undecided and not that the opponent's thesis is false.
So while a direct assault on the conclusion is a questionable strategy, it is powerful when paired with one or both of the other two.
- Be fair! Be accurate in summarizing the arguments you critique.
- Be thorough. Deal with all of the arguments!
Obviously, most arguers will give several different reasons in support of their conclusion. A critique usually begins with the strongest of them, and proceeds to examine each of them, one at a time. It is wrong to focus only on the weaker arguments when several are given, for this is to misrepresent the strength of the opponent's position by committing the fallacy of straw man. If there are a lot of arguments to deal with, the best strategy is to focus directly on the conclusion you want to dispute, and concentrate on showing it is false or questionable.
- Stay on task. Do not get personal! Do not shift attention to the person who wrote the argument. The person who gives the argument is not the issue.
Pulling it all together
|A Simple Example|
Here is a short argument : "Frank is jerk. Anyone who fails to pay child support for their own daughter is a jerk."
Suppose that's all that's said to prove that Frank is a jerk (which is the conclusion). So the only premise is "Anyone who fails to pay child support for their own daughter is a jerk." But there are at least two assumptions. One is that Frank has a daughter. The other is that Frank isn't paying child support for that daughter. This offers three places to begin criticizing the argument.
We might start by disputing the premise, by pointing to several good counterexamples (men who fail to pay child support but who are not jerks). In this case, that's not hard to do. Some men don't pay child support because they are unemployed and have no income, in which case they might fail to pay through no fault of their own. We can also attack the assumptions. We might say that Frank can't be held responsible for the child support until there's clear evidence that he's the child's father, but the argument has assumed that without offering evidence of it. Or we might produce evidence that Frank does pay the child support.
After examining the premises and assumptions, we try to find a hole in the argument. In this case, that won't work, because the argument is valid (i.e., deductively successful).
Finally, we could just attack the conclusion directly by pointing out all of Frank's good qualities. (If Frank were a jerk, he wouldn't have all these good qualities. But he has them. So he's not a jerk.) We might admit that Frank should pay the money, but that it's too strong a conclusion to accuse him of being a jerk.
|Reductio ad absurdum |
Latin for "reduction to the absurd."
This argument strategy takes an opponent's claim (either a premise or assumption or conclusion) and argues that its truth would lead us to accept something completely absurd, ridiculous, or impossible.
Example: Someone defends vegetarianism by saying that it is unethical to live by killing. A reductio ad absurdum reply might go like this:
© 2003 Theodore Gracyk
Last updated August 24, 2012
Have you ever filled out a survey rating something from one to five? Often these surveys are used to find out how well something is liked or disliked. When it comes to rating something the person must think about his/her feelings about something. This is true for an evaluation essay. The writer must think about the topic and take a point of view about it. Sometimes the writer must research the topic before making any type of argument. The argument is usually stated in the thesis statement.
The first steps in writing an evaluation essay is to obtain supporting evidence to support your viewpoint. It is similar to an argumentative essay in that the writer's point of view is given backed with evidence. An evaluation essay is also similar to an analysis. The steps to analyze a topic are the same for an evaluation essay. A clear point of view must be taken with supporting evidence that will show the reasons for the point of view.
If the evaluation essay is written to evaluate an article or book, then the material must be read first. How can you evaluate something without at least reading it or examining it? It is important to be able to give the audience enough information to support the thesis. The best way to do this is to read the material or do some research on the topic. It is important to be able to give a clear judgment of the topic.
In writing an evaluation it is essential to evaluate both sides of the issue. Why does the other person feel the way he/she does. For instance, take the subject of same sex marriage. If taking the viewpoint that marriage is between men and women only, it would also be important to state the reasons others are in favor of same sex marriage. It is important for the judgment to be balanced as it states by both sides of the issue. If the argument seems biased the audience will often be biased against the writer. It is important to clarify all viewpoints by giving evidence.
The first step in writing an evaluation essay is creating the thesis. The thesis should be clearly stated. Evidence is needed to support the thesis. Select the main criteria of an issue and support it with statistics, facts, anecdotes, or quotes. Evidence should present facts and the interpretation of these facts so they clearly support the thesis.
A great way to help clarify the issues of an evaluation essay is to use an outline. Start with an interesting fact, quote, or anecdote. List the supporting evidence to be used in the main points. Make a conclusion that wraps the information up yet leaving a thought for the audience to take with them.
One way of presenting an argument that will touch the heart of the audience is to use anecdotes showing why the writer has taken the point of view he/she has. Appeal to their emotions as to why your point of view is clearly right.
Ask yourself if the evidence is relevant? Is it sufficient? Is the evidence accurate? Have you stated both sides of the issue? Why is this topic important and why have you chosen your point of view?
An evaluation essay is basically an analysis of a topic, book, or article. It summarizes the material, and then it gives evidence for the argument. Transition sentences are important between the evidence provided. Each paragraph should have a main sentence that ties with the thesis.
The next step is to proofread the essay. Look for grammar or spelling mistakes. Read the essay out loud to check the flow of the sentences. Instructors often use evaluation essays to see how well the students understand a specific topic.