With the deepening of research on consumer behaviour, people more and more deeply recognize that consumer behaviour is an built-in whole, is a procedure, and obtaining and buying are merely a phase of this procedure. Therefore, the survey of consumer behaviour should look into and understand the rating and choice activities of consumers before the obtaining of merchandises and services, and what ‘s more, attending should besides be paid to the activities of the usage and disposal after the obtain of the merchandises ( Elizabeth, 2009 ) . Since consumer behaviour is of import, research on the theory of consumer behaviour is necessary. In a narrow sense, consumer behaviour merely refers to buy behaviour of consumers and the existent ingestion of consumer informations. In a wide sense, consumer behaviour non merely comprises some decision-making procedures, which refer to assorted actions that consumers take for the demand and dispose of consumer goods, but besides includes a serious of complex procedures, such as the obtain of ingestion gross ( Leon, 2007 ) . Both theory of cardinal topographic point and theoretical account of infinite interaction regard the consumer group activities as the research object. Theory of cardinal topographic point assumes that consumers will be given to a recent centre that can supply goods or services, which accords with the agent of economic-man. Harmonizing to the theory of cardinal topographic point, consumers are rational in salvaging cost and maximising their public-service corporation. Model of infinite interaction respects that consumer behaviour is closely linked to the reaction of centre attractive force and the competition among other centre systems. In existent life, purchase decision-makers, purchasers, users of the same goods or services may be the same person, besides may be different. Consumer behaviour is closely related to the exchange of merchandises or services ( Bruce, 2009 ) . In the status of modern market economic system, enterprises ‘ research on consumer behaviour focuses on set uping and developing long-run exchange relationship with consumers. In order to gain more net incomes and do a long-run development in the ferocious competition, endeavors should foremost necessitate to understand that consumers are how to get merchandises and services, and they besides need to cognize that consumers are how to utilize merchandises and merchandises are how to be treated after the usage. Consumers ‘ disbursement experience, manner and feeling of disposal old merchandises can hold an impact on the following unit of ammunition of consumers ‘ purchase, in other words, it can straight act upon the long-run exchange relation between endeavors and consumers. There are many factors that can hold an impact on consumer behaviour, and this article will merely present some chief factors ( Laura, 2009 ) . The first 1 is cultural factor. Culture is the basic factor of desires and behaviour of human. Different civilization can bring forth different societal strata. Due to the diverseness of value, ingestion, aesthetics and wonts of different societal strata, they have different ways of taking form, measure, quality, design demands of merchandises. Consumers of each stratus have their stores and merchandises of accommodating themselves. The 2nd one is societal factor. Social factor refers to related groups, character and place of household and single. In buying behaviour, consumers frequently use the most general ingestion construct and consumer behaviour to modulate their ain ingestion behaviour, so related groups around consumers particularly their household and good friends have a considerable influence on the buying behaviour of consumers. The 3rd 1 is personal factor. Buying determinations of consumers are affected by their single features, such as age, business, economic position, lifestyle and self-concept. The 4th one is psychological factor. The psychological factor concludes demand and motive, consciousness, larning and memory, attitudes. These factors non merely affect and in some extent decide the decision-making behaviour of consumers, but besides can has enlarging or suppression consequence on the external environment and selling stimulation.
2, Apply the theory of consumer behaviour to tea imbibing
With the betterment of life criterions of occupants and the alterations in the construct of ingestion, tea imbibing has transferred from the former life luxury to day-to-day necessities of life. More and more consumers choose tea imbibing as their chief imbibing, alternatively of other imbibing. There are many grounds responsible for this phenomenon, and the chief ground is that great alterations have taken topographic point on buying behaviour of consumers. A serious of factors that influence consumer behaviour can hold an impact on tea imbibing ( Natalie, 2009 ) . The first facet is the alteration of cultural factor. With the alteration of value and ingestion of consumers, more and more consumers choose tea imbibing. “ Natural, healthy, natural arrested development ” has become the chief wellness consume tendency that more and more consumers pursue. The ground why tea imbibing all of a sudden “ fire ” arises is that it meets the consumer ‘s demands, and the ingestion manner of tea imbibing meets the demand of modern manner of life. The features of tea imbibing can be summarized as “ three low ” : low Calories, low fat and low sugar. Natural, thirst, healthy, bracing, tea imbibing is more thirst than carbonated drinks, and is more pleasant than H2O imbibing. Tea imbibing is non merely elegant, lingering aroma, rich in wellness attention, bur besides has the map of nutrition, wellness consequence and thirst quencher. The 2nd facet is the alteration of societal factor. If some consumers like the tea imbibing, they can impact the related groups, and the last result is that some relevant consumers choose tea imbibing. The 3rd facet is the alteration of personal factor. One of the grounds that tae drink began to sell prevarications in that the income degree of immature consumers has an betterment in recent old ages. With the addition of disposable income of the younger coevals, most consumers regard that bottle drink is more expensive, but they feel more “ smart ” , “ manner ” . Peoples with the features of dad, stylish and fancy will more take the ingestion of tea imbibing. The 4th facet is the alteration of psychological factor. Brand trueness has a batch to make with the consumer behaviour of tea drink market. Due to trade name trueness, consumer behaviour can hold positive consequence on tea imbibing. Once consumers like to imbibe some tea imbibing, they will take the same tea imbibing under the consequence of trade name trueness. Another ground that more and more consumers like tea imbibing is that wellness consciousness of people has risen. In the past carbonated drinks like Cola drinks occupy the absolute high quality in the cool and reviewing drink market, and drinks with high sugariness are popular in the non-carbonated drinks. The ground is that people think that since buying, the higher the nutrition has, the more cost-efficient it is. With the life style of high-income people bit by bit European, people start caring about their weight. Because people pursuit vogue weight as a manner, tea drink of low sugariness is moderately to be accepted by people. Peoples with the features of the chase of good figure tend to devour tea drink. Undoubtedly, it is exactly because tea drink meets the map and psychology demand of modern-day consumer that it develops so rapidly in such a really short clip. Consumer behaviour has an impact on purchase behaviour of consumers, which straight decides the demand of tea imbibing. Therefore, consumer behaviour has a great influence on the development of tea imbibing.
3, Impact of theory on selling schemes for tea
The foundation of marketing decision-making is the research on consumer behaviour, which is inseparable with the selling activities of endeavors. The constitution of selling schemes for tea is non an exclusion, and it will be affected by the theory of consumer behaviour. The research on consumer behaviour has a really of import significance on bettering the degree of marketing decision-making and heightening the effectivity of selling schemes. Consumer behaviour can hold an impact on imbibing behaviour, which influences the preparation of selling schemes for tea, such as advertisement and imbibing environment ( Lee, 2007 ) . On the one manus, there are many male monarchs of tea, if endeavors want to accepted by consumers and set up trade name trueness, it is necessary to stress trade name image and trade name direction. Through the research on consumer behaviour, endeavors can understand each index of assorted trade names, such as visibleness, buy/usage, trueness, transition and repute. Based on understanding image, position and rating of each trade name in the consumers, endeavors can do better trade name development scheme. Tea has many different types, such as green tea and black tea, and different types should put out different selling schemes in order to pull more consumers. On the other manus, because people pursuit vogue weight and some consumers pursue nutrition, it is necessary to do market cleavage in the tea drink market. Market cleavage is the foundation for the preparation of selling schemes. The intent of marketing section for endeavors is to happen mark markets which are appropriate for themselves. Harmonizing to the demand of mark markets, tea endeavors can explicate targeted selling programs, in order to more to the full fulfill the alone demands for consumers of the mark markets ( Norton, 2006 ) . Through the effectual market cleavage, tea endeavors can split different consumers into different consumer groups so that they can implement efficient selling schemes to run into the demands of different consumers. In the procedure of endeavors ‘ development, every endeavor has to develop new merchandises in order to run into the demands of consumers. In the class of execution of new merchandises, tea endeavors can take selling scheme that every consumer can imbibe free of charge in a certain period of clip so that consumers can accept the new merchandise better. Besides, tea endeavors can give tea of little wadding to consumers. Tea endeavors can develop new merchandises harmonizing to understanding the demands and desires of consumers and the rating of assorted merchandises attributes. It can be said that the research on consumer behaviour is an of import beginning for the design of new merchandises, and meanwhile it is besides an of import manner of proving new merchandises of assorted factors, such as public presentation, packaging, gustatory sensation, colour, specifications, which can be accepted and in what ways it should be farther perfected. The purpose of the development of new merchandises is to obtain more market portions and run into the demands of different consumers. “ Natural, healthy, natural arrested development ” has become the chief wellness consume tendency that more and more consumers pursue, so tea endeavors should intermix this tendency into their advertisement and selling schemes ( Eric, 2004 ) . Consumers regard tea imbibing as a manner, so advertisement and selling schemes of tea endeavors should add stylish component so that consumers can accept it easy. Through the survey of consumer behaviour, tea endeavors can understand the manner that consumers gain information, the attitude and rating that consumers treat advertisement and publicity of endeavors, so that tea endeavors can put up put up sensible and effectual advertisement and publicity schemes.
4, Statistics on Tea ingestion in China
Harmonizing to introducing of tea industry insiders, tea drink is the fastest-drinks in Europe and America in the 1990s, and it is regarded as a drink of new epoch. In Taiwan and Japan, tea drink has become the first biggest drink assortment, and 95 % of drink endeavors in Taiwan produce tea drink. In recent old ages, the development velocity of tea drink market in China has exceeded 300 % , and tea imbibing has become the 3rd imbibing after carbonated drinks and bottled drinks, increasing quickly. Harmonizing to tea ingestion in China, readers can happen that the development of tea ingestion is China is fast. With the transition of clip, the ingestion will go on to go larger.
The undermentioned signifier is the tea ingestion in China in recent old ages ( internet informations ) :
Output ( dozenss )
Gross ( billion kwais )
Form the above signifier we can happen that with the betterment of life criterions of occupants and the alterations in the construct of ingestion in China, tea imbibing has transferred from the former life luxury to day-to-day necessities of life, and Chinese consumers have more and more tea ingestion.
5, History of Lipton Tea
“ Lipton ” is the largest tea trade name in the universe. It non merely represents the tea experts, but besides stands for an international, stylish, urbanization life. Lipton has remained superior quality and aromatic Delicious of consecutive coevals for more than 100 old ages ( internet informations ) . With its bright xanthous Lipton delivers its intent to the universe: natural visible radiation, energy and good merriment. Mr. Thomas one time went out to go and make Ceylon, a celebrated tea production country. British people like Ceylon tea really much, but due to the high monetary value of drinks, merely few people can bask it. Lipton sensitively realized that if he can do the tea enter the mass of mundane life, it will go a good concern. Lipton was founded by Mr. Thomas in 1871. In 1890 he officially launched Lipton tea in Britain, and his motto is “ direct from tea garden to the tea pot ” . In 1892, Lipton began its globalisation motion. It foremost opened its mills in the United States, and so ran its subdivisions in India, come ining the far eastern markets. In 1898, Lipton was conferred self-respect by queen, winning the repute of “ the male monarch of tea ” . 80 old ages after the old Lipton get downing its planetary enlargement of Lipton trade name, the history of Lipton occurred qualitative alteration, and the unilever, the most celebrated planetary single consumer group bought the full Lipton trade name. Since so, Lipton boarded this planetary ship of unilevel and started its more powerful enlargement. Uniting the selling experience of Lipton and unilever, merchandises of Lipton tea now are on sale in the 110 states and parts. Whether celebrity or gross revenues, Lipton tea is the biggest planetary trade name in the universe, and its gross revenues are higher at least one clip than the second-largest trade name. At the same clip, Lipton tea is the 3rd non-alcoholic drink that consumers choose most, merely after the Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. In 1992, Lipton tea entered the oldest and largest state in the universe: China. Within five old ages, Lipton tea won the accomplishments of the first tea bags gross revenues and the first market portion in the probe of promenade in China. In 2001, Lipton established its planetary trade name image once more. Harmonizing to different gustatory sensation of consumers, Lipton makes precise market cleavage, and launches a serious of tea merchandises in order to run into the demands of different consumers. Distinctive trade name logo for the new motion of Lipton is rapidly popular among immature people all over the universe. The verve, healthy and upward that Lipton creates have infiltrated into the bosom of immature people. Lipton non merely creates a sort of bran-new trade name experience for immature consumers, but besides pours a fresh energy into tea drinks.
6, Branding and selling of Lipton Tea – China
Tea civilization, particularly green tea civilization has taken root in China for over a thousand old ages. Under the influence of antediluvian tea civilization, Chinese consumers have a deep apprehension about tea and the benefit of tea. Black tea originated in China has become the indispensable tea drinks in Europe and America. However, Lipton tea is evidently an alien for today ‘s Chinese consumers ( Adam, 2009 ) . Using black tea as its nucleus trade name, since come ining Chinese market in 1992 Lipton has realized that it must interrupt through the traditional stigmatization and selling catch of tea merchandises in order to do Chinese consumers understand and accept Lipton trade name. On the one manus, Lipton Tea is guided by the market instead than the merchandise orientation. Lipton divides assorted merchandises of tea into different classs, invariably making new gustatory sensations and user experience. Aiming the demand of consumers ‘ quickly imbibing a cup of tea, Lipton attracts a batch of immature people and office white-collar. In the web site, Lipton puts several dynamic humourous pictures for consumers, presenting the information that imbibing tea can accomplish the undermentioned intents: maintaining tripping organic structure, representation of young person, acquiring rid of weariness and protracting life. Assorted maps and different spirits of merchandises can run into different age groups and different demands, so that Lipton can hold a clear market end and pounce in stigmatization and selling. On the other manus, Lipton devotes to standardisation of merchandises and trade name image. Due to the grounds of works environment, picking and doing, tea merchandises are trouble in organizing the standardisation of gustatory sensation. Many consumers have non the ability of designation of tea, so tea endeavors have the chance of shoddy. With the media exposure and the bit by bit mature of consumer behaviour, it really is a trust crisis for endeavors. Based on map orientation of merchandises and trade name orientation, Lipton has made a good image in the head of consumers, so standardisation of merchandises and trade name image is a great wealth for Lipton. In add-on, the stigmatization and selling of Lipton is winning channels and the male monarch of terminuss. Lipton uses its strong image in the channel and terminal alteration the imbibing wont of immature coevals and White-collar. Using the invention selling method of cyberspace, Lipton has closely “ interaction ” with consumers in the fan BBS, which lets Lipton trade name into the life of coevals even the temper.
7, Current selling schemes
Besides the high quality and the solid foundation of trade name, Lipton ne’er slows the gait of understanding consumers and set uping communicating with consumers ( Jean-Pierre, 2001 ) . Lipton devotes itself to marketing invention: trade name publicity. The current selling schemes of Lipton focal point on modern immature people and White-collar. They are active, like pop civilization, wage attending to wellness and wander about working spouses to portion small beads of life. Now Lipton values the demands of the Internet roar and the emotional contact between consumers. As the nucleus merchandises, Lipton tea is non merely a simple office imbibing, but besides strives to deeply pass on with office white-collar group in emotional degree. Lipton finds that everywhere is busy White-collar in modern metropolis, though they are moneymaking, they work strain. Although they want to reach with friends, office life takes most of their clip. Lipton uses Lipton tea as a contact nexus between friends, which can shut the dealingss between co-workers through the good office afternoon tea in relaxed minutes. On the one manus, Lipton establishes trade name image of “ the tea experts ” in the targeted consumers. On the other manus, it brings away healthy tea and life attitude for consumers. In order to fulfill the consumers ‘ demands of good signifier and wellness, after attempts of four old ages the planetary R & A ; D centre of Lipton and Lipton tea research institute launch Lipton tea, rich in catechin and healthy diet.
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Essay on Using Attitudes to Predict Consumer Behavior
Ethical consumption has grown significantly in recent years. Marketers need to have a better understanding of the relationship between ethical attitudes and consumer behavior. According to researchers, “consumer behavior lags behind the stated level of concern about ethical issues”(Harrison, 2005, p. 198). There is the apparent gap between attitudes and consumer behavior. Nevertheless, 24% of the British consumers characterize themselves as “ethical consumers” (Harrison, 2005, p. 198). Ethical behavior of consumers has become an object of research in recent years. According to Lucica Matei and Teodora Dinu (2012), “actual consumer behavior has been neglected in research when compared to a more significant number of studies measuring consumers’ ethical attitudes and beliefs”(p. 41). Drawing on the academic literature relating to the relationship between attitudes and behavior, it is necessary to explain why attitudes may not always help to predict behavior and why the attitude-behavior gap might be so prevalent. The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior help to give explanation to consumers’ intention of being involved in consumer behavior. Attitudes may not always predict consumer behavior because of certain consumer-related barriers.
Definition of terms
The term “consumer behavior” can be defined as “the behavior of ultimate consumers, those who purchase products for personal and household consumption and not for business purposes” (Ferrell et al., 2012, p. 114).
The term “consumer attitude” defines the link between consumer behavior and the consumer disposition to purchase any kind of products or services. The consumer attitude can be assessed by means of regular consumer opinion surveys which are based on real facts, as well as by consumption trend analysis, which provides the required “information on the real consumption of each product” (Lazzaroni et al., 2013, p. 84). According to Dr. Lars Perner (2010), consumer attitude can be regarded as a complex of consumer beliefs, intentions and feelings toward some product within the context of marketing strategy.
The term “attitude-behavior gap” can be defined as the tension that exists within an individual (a consumer) between what he/she wants to do (or intends to do) and what he/she thinks he/she should do (or perform) (Trijp & Fischer, 2010). When individuals are asked to define their values and belief, they demonstrate the attitude that is the most appropriate in terms of the established norms (Trijp & Fischer, 2010). The size of theattitude-behavior gap can be determined by the level of ambiguity that is involved in consumer decision (Trijp & Fischer, 2010).
The use of attitude theory
in understanding of a variety of attitudinal concepts
The use of attitude theory in understanding of a variety of attitudinal concepts is essential for marketers. There are two basic theories that can be applied to this situation: the Theory of Reasoned Action developed by Fishbein and the Theory of Planned Behavior developed by Ajzen. Actually, both theories help to explain the role of immediate determiner of consumer behavior – consumers’ intention to be involved in this behavior (Ajzen, 2005; Brannon & Feist, 2009). Both theories assume that consumer intentions should be focused on motivation. Various motivational factors affect consumer behavior. In other words, intentions are caused by some motivational factors in order to perform some behavior. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that an individual’s intention to perform some behavior (e.g. consumer behavior) or not to perform it is “the immediate determinant of action”, while an individual’s attitude is determined by “the person’s beliefs and evaluation of the expected outcome” (Raoprasert &Islam, 2010, p. 31).
The Theory of Reasoned Action
The Theory of Reasoned Action (Fig.1) is focused on the fact that consumer behavioral intentions are caused by two major reasons:
- Functioning of consumers’ attitudes toward their behaviors, “determined by their beliefs that the behavior will lead to positively or negatively valued outcomes” (Brannon & Feist, 2009,p. 72).
- Functioning of consumers’ subjective norms, determined by consumer perceptions of the values placed by others on the behavior and by their motivation to follow these norms(Brannon & Feist, 2009)
According to the Theory of Reasoned Action, an individual’s attitude to behavior stands for an individual’s assessment of the positive and negative outcomes of performing the target action. The consequences of the behavior are taken into consideration (Brannon & Feist, 2009).
In general, the Theory of Reasoned Action is focused on the assumption that consumer behavior is determined by an individual’s intention to follow the behavior patterns, which can provide the most accurate prediction of consumer behavior. The level of consumer intention affects the opportunity to be involved in consumer behavior (Raoprasert & Islam, 2010).
The Theory of Planned Behavior
The Theory of Planned Behavior is focused on the additional determinant of consumer intention to act – consumers’ perception of their control over their behavior. Actually, the Theory of Planned Behavior can be viewed as the extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen, 2005). It is necessary to understand the role of consumers’ perceived behavior control (Brannon & Feist, 2009). This determinant was added to place emphasis on the factors that have a strong impact on consumers’ intentions. Due to the individuals’ self-perception of control, it is possible to predict the likelihood of an individual’s actions (Brannon & Feist, 2009).
According to the Theory of Planned Behavior, there are three basic determinants or factors that affect consumer behavior and intentions: personal factor, social factor and the factor that deals with the issues of control (Fig.2).
As a matter of fact, the relevant attitude theory helps to better understand a variety of attitudinal concepts. Both theories assume that an individual’s intention to behave in a particular way is dependent on the individual’s attitude toward the behavior (e.g. the opinions of other people, the individual perceived behavior control and the individual’s desire to perform actions) (Ajzen, 2005; Raoprasert & Islam, 2010). In other words, according to these theories, individuals may perceive various barriers to consumer behavior based on their own attitudes and taken into consideration their own cognitions (Ajzen, 2005;Brannon & Feist, 2009).
Paul A. Pavlou and Mendel Fygenson(2006) use the Theory of Planned Behavior to give explanation to consumer behavior, as well as to predict the process of e-commerce adoption by consumers. Researchers place emphasis on the process that reflects two online consumer behaviors: first, getting information and, second, purchasing a product online (from a Web seller). Researchers “simultaneously model the association between these two contingent online behaviors and their respective intentions by appealing to consumer behavior theories and the theory of implementation intentions, respectively” (Pavlou & Fygenson, 2006, p.112). Besides, researchers use various methods to derive for each type of consumer behavior its intention, belief, attitude, and behavioral control.
The major causes of attitudes’ failure to predict consumer behavior
Due to the relationship between attitude and consumer behavior, it is possible to predict the behavior of consumers based on their own attitudes toward various products, brands, services, etc. offered by sellers. As a rule, consumer behavior can be predicted based on positive attitudes. However, in some cases, it is impossible to predict consumer behavior because people “form attitudes that fulfill their social identity functions, and there is no any consistent relationship between attitude and future behavior” (Mooij, 2010, p. 134). It has been found that attitudes may not always be helpful in predicting consumer behavior. It is very important to understand the major barriersto predicting consumer behavior (Harrison, 2005). According to the recent study conducted by the Cooperative bank, only 5% of the British consumers make purchase decisions based on ethical attitudes (Harrison, 2005). The following factors may have a strong impact on consumer behavior: changes in consumer values, changes in attitudes, changes in consumer knowledge about products, and changes in some significant aspects of consumption process (price and quality), changing in consumer habits and preferences (Harrison, 2005; Hoyer, 2012)
Essay on Using Attitudes to Predict Consumer Behavior part 2