The Phaistos Disc Solved Assignment

The first general step is to associate the inner box spiral to the astronomical eclipse cycle Saros of roughly 18 years.

The second step is to identify some of the disk spiral boxes as having duplicates somewhere on the same spiral, building a pattern of associated boxes.

After detecting a certain pattern of duplicate boxes, the idea is to search the available lists of ancient eclipses for—in the best case—a single match with the disk’s specific pattern, which is the third step.

This analysis tries to shed some light on the design of the disk and the geographic location of its astronomic reference. To verify the eclipse-matching method, the author assigned an intentionally wrong geoposition as input (also on Crete) and received no matching pattern as expected; this result also reduces the possibility of a design outside Crete.

Please note that this paper does not state the date or location of the disk’s manufacturing, although it may be assumed to be on Crete, after its Cretan design.

The first step is identifying the Saros cycle principle, i.e., the reason for picking the first 18 boxes from the “center” of the disk side A (with the flower petal in the center) is the similarity of this box count to the 18 years of the astronomic Saros cycle (more exact = 18 years, 11 days, 8 h). Another crucial reason for picking the 18 boxes (here, of side A) is the small box As18b at the end of the side A spiral, starting at box As01 in the center, following the spiral outward to box As18, and finding a small box (two symbols only) behind box As18, which fits to account for the Saros period rest of 11 days 8 h as it signals the end of Saros cycle and the end of the box spiral.

These are some of the reasons to name it box As18b, not As19, and the assumption of the center box As01, being the start of the box spiral, confirms the first assumption of Sir A. Evans (1921). A second try of pattern matching was done using the inverted disk box spiral (not center box first, but 18th box first): The resulting lack of matching patterns indicated that the first method (start of reading in the center) seems to be better, also confirming the reading method of Sir A. Evans (1921).

This is an important identification in this paper which led to the astronomical cycle “Saros” (“Appendix 3”), building a bridge between archeology and astronomy and refining this analysis’ path.

The 12 boxes on the rim of the disk are not considered in detail in this paper. Still, it could be assumed—in the wake of the spiral box being an astronomic object—that the number 12 may suggest the astronomic 12 months of a year, commonly used in some cultures. Thus, the 12-rim boxes could represent any year—yet unknown. The second step to take is identifying the year duplicates on the disk spirals in order to solve the problem of associating one Phaistos Disk spiral to all relevant ancient Saros cycles.

List of duplicates found on disk sides A and B:
  • Side A
    • Four twins
      • Boxes As01 and As04 (flower petal, head + shovel)

      • Boxes As03 and As15 (comb, two plants, two hides, cookie, irokese)

      • Boxes As11 and As17 (Walker, Stick)

      • Boxes As12 and As18 (boomerang + five others)

    • One triplet: Boxes As10, As13 and As16 (Eel, Bird, Cookie, Irokese)

  • Side B
    • One twin
      • Boxes Bs05 and Bs10 (glove, + three others), i.e., only one twin: one reason for side B not taking part in identifying the beginning of the final Saros cycle. See also Appendix 6.

The third and final step is analyzing the matching eclipses and interpreting the best match of the disk’s “Saros” cycle/spiral. Here, it is assumed that the duplicate (+ triplet) years of the second step above must have something in common; the hypothesis used is if the whole disk spiral represents a Saros cycle with eclipses, then the “twin” events in twin years can be assumed to represent reoccurring Sun eclipses of 2 years (twin) or 3 years (triplet).

There is one twin (As03, As15) where no Sun eclipse occurred in the same Saros period (spiral of side A). This gap is filled by extracting the Moon eclipses of this same Saros period: There appeared Moon eclipses in the position As03 and As15, as expected, which verified the previous Sun eclipse matching. A manual procedure (“Appendix 3”, Selecting the best match of two Saros cycles) was developed for searching a contiguous number of 500 years (see below the limits), trying to find all 18-year periods, which fulfill the twin and triplet pattern extracted from the disk (from above second step).

The second input is primarily the Sun eclipse list produced by the GSFC/NASA for the period −1500 to −1000: The year limit of −1500 is the minimal limit allowed by the GSFC designer of this tool; the upper/youngest limit −1000 is chosen for making sure to cover the suggestions of Godart, who assigns the disk to the time between −1500 and thirteenth century BC (Godart 1995, p 162; Balistier 1998, p 27).

The geographic position of the Phaistos Palace—24°48′ E, 35°05′ N—is used to generate 500 contiguous years of ancient eclipses. This geoposition is used twice for this paper:
  1. 1.

    To generate the pattern lists mentioned above under “Analysis and suggestions” section

  2. 2.

    To verify the assumed location “Phaistos” as the geoposition of the disk designer by varying the coordinates; this leads, as expected, to a nonmatching pattern list.

Example: The eclipse list for, e.g., Phaistos, Crete results in following eclipse list, assuming otherwise identical parameters (e.g., century).

There are five matches (in years −1377, −1374, −1368, −1365, and −1362). These 500 years are taken as a time base, and the second input (18 years with the eclipse twins and triplet, see step 2 above) is plotted stepping through the 500 years, each year, checking for a best match.

Chosen for pattern matching were:
  • Side A

    1 triplet-unit (covering 7 Saros-years: 10…16

    As10/As13/As16

    1 twin-unit (covering 4 Saros-years: 01…04

    As01/As04

    Sum of covered years: 7 + 4 = 11 from total 18

    Span of covered years: As01…As16 = 16 years of 18.

Note that the twins between years 11 and 18 were initially left out because they mostly overlapped the triplet, which itself provides far better result singularity.

There is only one optimal match with the selected twin/triplet combination with maximum eclipse magnitude: The year −1377 (5th of July, beginning 0501 hours) suggested as the initial year of a Saros cycle starting in year −1377, extending to −1359. To enhance the result, the disk’s twin of the same period (year twin As03 and As15) can be found in the same Moon eclipse list for the same Sun eclipse period starting −1377 on the NASA list and—reassuring—the second Sun eclipse documented by the Phaistos Disk/year box As04 = eclipse list year −1374 was also independently observed by Ugarit astronomers in year 1375 BC (= −1374 BC, see “Appendix 4”).

There is a second triplet/twin match of Sun eclipses, but the magnitude of the first eclipse in −1377 was higher (100%), and it occurred in the last century of the five probed, −1023 (see “Appendix 3”, cutout). To further assess the significance of the optimal match, each of the relevant duplicated boxes is systematically omitted, and the resulting matches are listed in Table 1. In all of these cases, an obviously higher number of matching years, averaging 5 (± 1.67), emphasizes the significance of the optimal match.
Table 1

Analysis of match significance using systematic omissions of the relevant duplicated boxes


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THE FLEUR-DE-LIS AND THE NUTSHELL CALENDARS, CONTINUED.


When you, by defining 70 stems, immediately expose an overwhelming divisibility by eleven in a materiale without any through-going number to be found beforehand, and when this discovery is utilized by an unambiguous squared (gnomonic) arrangement, which involves as many as 198 perfect placed units out of the total of 244 signs, and when you continue to draw obvious consequences of those 70 stems, which reveal harmonic proportions with an unmistakable thread to month and year, although that the expert-knowledge only accepted philological interpretations of this inscription at that time, then you have not just manufactured another product on the topic, you did create the ANSWER to the understanding of a famous problem, which was neither to be led nor driven by anyone for over 80 years . Now you would expect a professional co-operation to evoke, which should lead you to a most expedient publication and acceptance of your break-through. -that does not happens! Instead the scholars pretend that they are not impressed by slowing down the process; In the meantime closing all doors for a further publication of yours. What a sadistic theater, -what a circus! To draw the consequence is a useful tool. In this situation the conclusion is: Not by necessity a bad Scholar or Editor, but definitely a bad human being, who did influence all involved parts against a visible publication of my solution. *
By isolating the 8 signs of the 4 unpaired stems, -just as it was done in the gnomonical arrangement-, new perspectives emerge, in that the legitimate inscription of 243 signs is reduced into 235 signs (lunations?), while the expanded picture (less a dove) obtains 354 signs (days). This applies the disc a dual function as counter of the civil year, and of the 19 year cycle too. (though the Metonic cycle was not introduced untill 432 BC). Again I bring this appeal to experts in calendar calculations, to do me the favor to come forward and confirm my basic discovery of twelve months with 29 days, to set me free, so that I no-longer shall be caught by the hypothetical risk of a competition between my deciphering and the whole World, while my discovery is still hold back in panic, knowing that it is on the right track, ahead of an honest mentioning and recognition.
[I do not aspire after being an expert in calendars myself, -life is short-. I only bring home "the proof", that the Phaistos disc is a calendar with a build in dual system, without any room for a single word. -In 1981 I ear-marked five years of my life to this assignment, -one year for publication ....].
Believe me, I succeded within the frame of 4 years; but it still lacks any decent reference-.
Would it be to much to ask an Institute with specialists in statistics, to put ppm values on, how often such perfect calendar appears in a by random shuffled material consisting of approximately 243 many-colored balls in a frame? -Bingo!
In this case escapism is to believe, that this is an invitation to free fancy-cake and mocca. -It never was! -Inspired research is marked by that it sets up a chain reaction of new thoughts by its consequences. Albert Einstein has long ago gained great recognition for his inspired ideas, could you not compile his universe instead, please? If you in particular take interest in my result, then help it being referred to and acknowledged, otherwise try your 'four-leaved clover' elsewhere; or better: Wish me free of this artificial obstruction, caused by no-one good!
The resistence against my discovery started, where it should have ended by my releasing of the 22 stem-forms in 1985. This breaking discovery of mine should be coeval with Michael Ventris famous grid from 1950 of syllables for linear-B writing, which has its origin from Crete too. And within its field to Sir Andrew Willes' solving of Fermat's third theorem in 1994. This problem withstood not for 80 years, but for about 350 years. So too accumulating a very great prestige. Nota Bene. Shift five seven five times '5 +7 +5 +7 +5' =29. and 61 times =365.



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EXCEPTIONS.


I am not the first one to declare calendar - Pontifex Minor called out "Kalendae!" each new moon 'ab urbe condita'.

These four unpaired stem are also kept apart in "The gnomonical arrangement".
Ottomar und Malte, Neuss: Der Diskos von Phaistos 'Kryptogramm eines Kalenders- Interpretation eines Kulttextes aus Kreta', Kurz und Gut heft 1 (Frankfurt 1975) call attention to this fact: Face B's 119 signs plus twice face A's 123 signs establish 365 signs in total [Another obvious suggestion next to language will be a calendar. Are those twin-brothers our Stars, if a calendar?]
So too L. Pomerance, The Phaestos Disc. An interpretation of Astronomical Symbols (Göteborg 1976) 34. 'By turning the Disc eleven times and observing it twelve times, the total annual count comes to 366 unit days...'. - Ergo: side A's 31 and side B's 30 signgroups constitute two months in his opinion. [Leon Pomerance essentially leans back in trust that he has found the constellations Eagle and Snake. A very entertaining book - Is he our true Champion?]
In any cryptanalytic problem a single sure entry solves the problem. A quotation from Benjamin Schwartz, The Phaistos Disc I. (JNES XVIII 1959), 108. [Used as defense for his choice of "crested warrior" as the vowel "A". On that he leans back, and exiles from this topic, unhurt.- Shall he at last bear the palm alone, if the warrior turns out to be an "A"?]
[Or is'nt it, to be honest, my unfolding of a hermetical closed system, that calls for Victory?]. _(At least admit, that my calendar manifestation, in contrast to others attempts, is brought in direct relation to the subject).
Other candidates : Kurt E. Kocher, 1983, (x110282077). [In counting the braids in the hairstyle of Venus of Willendorf, he calls out "Kalender!". Is she our new beauty Princess?].*
His book, which I read with pleasure, has this in common with the papers of Leon Pomerance, Hermann Wenzel, Alan Butler and others, that they rattle off a wealth of astronomical data, such as the exact axial precession of the Earth, the Saros and Metonic cycles, Saturn, etc.; but then it suddenly strikes me: what on earth has all those information really to do with the Phaistos disc in itself?
-Let us not forget the altruistic side of research that detectives are aiming to solve mysteries, to prevent our future mistakes!
[Or is it the ridder of others fortune, who knows how to manipulate ISBN-numbers to set back the date for his deed, that shall be our deeply admired Hero?]. -Time shall tell
Nota bene: The 4 unpaired stems which are pointing out the 66 paired stems of the 70, are isolated too in The 5 orders of sign-groups, They are represented in my book: "The Phaistos disc alias the Minoan calendar". appendix A, figure 4a. (2001). as an Ariadne thread , demonstrating the widespread tendency towards multipla of 11. And, of course, in the "gnomonical arrangement".
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THE ELEVEN NON-STEM SIGN-GROUPS OF 29 +30 DAYS.




Though I am still working with a handful of very close calendar variations, it is an enourmous promotion compared with the uncountable numbers of variations, that were before ...
The relation between the signs and the sign-groups is calendrical, so is the equal relation between the visible signs and the absent units (Cf. the hollow pyramid and its core). Variations

Situationen befordrer en trang til at skrive følgende: My intention never went further, than to draw a picture of what the consequnces of my discovery of these exactly 70 stems did do to the entirety. For instace by identifying the missing units in the isolated elements from the 70 two signs stems. Or to clarify the symmetrical relations in the gnomonical arrangement, all which are indicating a density of calendar ciphers. A discovery which certainly should be leading to an immediate public recognision from scholars, picked mathematicians astronomers, historians ...
Nevertheless, I did continue with the endeavour to dig deeper into the understanding of the message of this disc, This is not to be regarded as a weakness, but as a wish to precipitate an otherwise very costive developement in the eureka reaction to my turning-point answer to this enigma. Remember the expedient procedure, after Michal Ventris displayed his grid of syllables for linear-B in 1951.
Now I only trust, that someone among the readers will take the lesson from my method of investigation and its results to place the last intricate piece by the aid of one of my variations over this newfound calendar, so that I finally shall have my decipherment confirmed and appreciated. It ought not to take that long.

PART 3.



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