APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:54:13
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
- All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
- Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
- Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
- For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
- Present the journal title in full.
- Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
- For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice.
- Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
- When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
- Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
- Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
- Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2nd printing.
DOI = digital object identifier
- A DOI commonly identifies a journal articlebut it can also be found on other publication types including books.
- All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
- The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.
- You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz to locate articles.
Doi in your reference list entry:
- Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books).
- No full stop at the end of a DOI.
A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and the prefix doi.org: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Notes: the following old DOI styles are still acceptable:
If there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.
Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI
- Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.
Finding a journal homepage URL:
You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine" to find the journal's homepage
Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.
Journals without a home page and no DOI:
This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only.
- Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.
Use a URL of a library database:
Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:
If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.
- Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.
An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".
The URL on the ebook page is: