For the jazz musician, see Buddy Bolden.
|12th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration|
July 17, 2009 – January 20, 2017
|Preceded by||Michael D. Griffin|
|Succeeded by||Robert M. Lightfoot Jr.|
|Born||Charles Frank Bolden Jr.|
(1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 71)
Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.
|Alma mater||United States Naval Academy, B.S. 1968|
University of Southern California, M.S. 1977
United States Naval Test Pilot School
|Awards||Defense Distinguished Service Medal|
Defense Superior Service Medal
Legion of Merit (2)
Distinguished Flying Cross
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Years of service||1968–2004|
|Commands||I Marine Expeditionary Force (FWD)|
3rd Marine Aircraft Wing
Operation Desert Thunder
Time in space
|28d 08h 37m|
|Selection||1980 NASA Group 9|
|Missions||STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-45, STS-60|
Charles Frank Bolden Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is a former Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine CorpsMajor General, and a former NASA astronaut.
A 1968 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he became a Marine Aviator and test pilot. After his service as an astronaut, he became Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. 
On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Bolden as NASA Administrator and Lori Garver as Deputy NASA Administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the Senate on July 15, 2009. He was the first African American to head the agency on a permanent basis.
On January 12, 2017, Bolden announced his resignation from NASA during a town hall meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C. His last day would be January 19, and Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was announced as acting NASA Administrator.
Bolden graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1964. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, where he was a contemporary of future Marine officers Oliver North, Jim Webb and Michael Hagee and future Chief of Naval OperationsMichael Mullen, and a Master of Science degree in Systems Management from the University of Southern California in 1977. He is a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity.
Bolden delivered the commencement address for the 153rd graduating class at the University of Arizona in 2017.
In high school, Bolden says that because he is black, he was turned down for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy by South Carolina's delegation in Congress, including Senator Strom Thurmond, at the time a segregationist. Bolden received his appointment with the help of initiatives by President Johnson and William L. Dawson, a U.S. representative from Chicago, Illinois, and would receive letters of congratulations from Thurmond at various career milestones. Bolden was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps following graduation from the United States Naval Academy in 1968. He was president of his class. He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi, and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a Naval Aviator in May 1970.
He flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in the A-6A Intruder while assigned to VMA(AW)-533 at Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong, Thailand, from June 1972 to June 1973.
Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as a Marine Corps officer selection and recruiting officer in Los Angeles, California, followed by three years in various assignments at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California.
In June 1979, he graduated from the United States Naval Test Pilot School at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland and was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, and A-7C/E airplanes. He logged more than 6,000 hours flying time.
Bolden was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1980. He was a member of the NASA Astronaut Corps until 1994 when he returned to assignments in the Marine Corps, first as the Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy, effective June 27, 1994. In July 1997, he was assigned as the Deputy Commanding General of I Marine Expeditionary Force. From February to June 1998, he served as Commanding General, I MEF (Forward) in support of Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait. In July 1998, he was promoted to his final rank of major general and assumed his duties as the Deputy Commander, United States Forces Japan. He then served as the Commanding General, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, from August 9, 2000 until August 2002. He retired from the military in August 2004.
Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became an astronaut in August 1981. His technical assignments included: Astronaut Office Safety Officer; Technical Assistant to the Director of Flight Crew Operations; Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center; Astronaut Office Liaison to the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance Directorates of the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Kennedy Space Center; Chief of the Safety Division at JSC; Lead Astronaut for Vehicle Test and Checkout at the Kennedy Space Center; and Assistant Deputy Administrator, NASA Headquarters.
A veteran of four space flights, he has logged over 680 hours in space. Bolden served as pilot on STS-61-C (January 12–18, 1986) and STS-31 (April 24–29, 1990), and was the mission commander on STS-45 (March 24, 1992 – April 2, 1992), and STS-60 (February 3–11, 1994).
Bolden was the first person to ride the Launch Complex 39 slidewire baskets which enable rapid escape from a Space Shuttle on the launch pad. The need for a human test was determined following a launch abort on STS-41-D where controllers were afraid to order the crew to use the untested escape system.
A few years before his appointment by President Barack Obama to be administrator of NASA, Bolden auditioned, along with professional actors, for the role of virtual host for NASA's "Shuttle Launch Experience" educational attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Merritt Island, Florida.
On Jan 12, 2017, Bolden announced his resignation from NASA during a Town Hall meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C. His last day would be January 19, and Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was announced as acting NASA Administrator.
On STS-61-C, Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight, crew members deployed the SATCOMKu band satellite, and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center on January 12, 1986, orbited the Earth 96 times, and ended with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 18, 1986.
Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-31. Launched on April 24, 1990 from Kennedy Space Center, the crew spent the five-day mission deploying the Hubble Space Telescope and conducting a variety of middeck experiments. They also used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting altitude of over 400 miles. Following 75 orbits of Earth in 121 hours, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base on April 29, 1990.
On STS-45, Bolden commanded a crew of seven aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, launched on March 24, 1992 from Kennedy Space Center. STS-45 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's "Mission to Planet Earth". During the nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical properties. In addition, this was the first time an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate an auroral discharge. Following 143 orbits of Earth, Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center on April 2, 1992.
Bolden commanded STS-60's crew of six aboard Discovery. This was the historic first joint-American/Russian Space Shuttle mission involving the participation of a Russiancosmonaut, Sergei Krikalev, as a Mission Specialist. The flight launched on February 3, 1994 from Kennedy Space Center, and carried the Space Habitation Module-2 (SPACEHAB), and the Wake Shield Facility. The crew conducted a series of joint American/Russian science activities. The mission achieved 130 orbits of the Earth, ending with a landing on February 11, 1994, at the Kennedy Space Center.
Administrator of NASA
In 2009, President Obama appointed Bolden to be administrator of NASA.
In a NASA video published April 28, 2010, titled "NASA's New Era of Innovation and Discovery ... We're gonna turn science fiction into science fact", Bolden said.
That same day, at a question and answer session with employees at the Johnson Space Center, Bolden compared the Constellation Program to a stillborn baby calf extracted from a camel's womb by U.S. Marines, saying "We do the same thing. We’ve got some stillborn calves around, and we have got to figure out ways to help each other bring them back to life." 
In a June 2010 interview with Al Jazeera, Bolden said that the top three goals he was tasked with by President Obama were to help re-inspire children to want to get into science and math, to expand NASA's international relationships, and, "perhaps foremost", "to reach out to the Muslim world... to help them feel good about their historic contribution to science... and math and engineering".
Bolden said his agency's long-term ambition is landing astronauts on Mars. He has cited spending cuts as a concern for major NASA projects.
On August 28, 2012, he was the first human being to have his voice broadcast on the surface of Mars. Although the rover has no speakers, it received the transmission of his voice and then beamed it back to Earth.
In 2013 he noted the National Aerospace Week as NASA administrator.
On October 28, 2015, Bolden presented the next steps for a human journey to Mars at the Center for American Progress in Washington, D.C..
Bolden lives in Houston, Texas, and is married to Alexis (Jackie) (née Walker); the couple has two children: Anthony Che and Kelly Michelle.
Bolden is Christian, noting such in a 'Question and Answers' session held in May 2010 where he stated:
"You know, the universe is a big place. I'm a practicing Christian, so in my faith, I learn about omnipotent, omnipresent God, which means he's everywhere. He's all-knowing. He does everything. And I just cannot bring my little pea brain to believe that a God like that would pick one planet of one of millions of suns and say that's the only place in the vast universe that I'm going to put any kind of life. And so the problem is I haven't been far enough away." 
Bolden's military awards include:
Bolden has received:
- ^"Bolden, Charles F. Jr.". Current Biography Yearbook 2010. Ipswich, MA: H.W. Wilson. 2010. pp. 50–53. ISBN 9780824211134.
- ^ ab"Retired General Picked to Lead NASA", by Kenneth Chang, New York Times, May 24, 2009
- ^"Bolden and Garver Confirmed by U.S. Senate". NASA. July 15, 2009.
- ^First Black NASA Administrator Charles Bolden 'Pleaded' To Get Into Naval Academy
- ^"LBJ Space Center Roundup"(PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. June 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- ^Ex-astronaut Bolden to lead Nasa, BBC.co.uk, July 19, 2009.
- ^"NASA Video Gallery". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^"A New Era of Innovation and Discovery - President Obama's Plan for NASA". YouTube. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^"Bolden Urges Work Force To Back NASA's New Direction". SpaceNews.com. 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^"Charles Bolden: The Nasa administrator and astronaut in conversation with Al Jazeera's Imran Garda". Al Jazeera English. June 30, 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"NASA Chief: Next Frontier Better Relations With Muslim World". Fox News. July 5, 2010.
- ^Zobel, Jen (July 10, 2011). "NASA Administrator: President Obama Wants Americans On Mars". Ozarksfirst.com. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^O'Neill, Ian (July 13, 2011). "James Webb Space Telescope Closer to the Axe". Discovery News. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^Mullen, Jethro (2012-08-28). "Human voice makes giant leap in space thanks to Curiosity". CNN.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^"NASA to beam new will.i.am song from Mars". MSNBC.msn.com. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^Staff (October 28, 2015). "Human Space Exploration: The Next Steps". Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- ^Staff (October 28, 2015). "NASA: "Human Space Exploration - The Next Steps" - Video (55:48)". Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- ^Staff (October 8, 2015). "REPORT: NASA's Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration"(PDF). NASA. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- ^Gipson, Lillian (October 8, 2015). "Follow Mark Watney's Epic Trek on Mars with New NASA Web Tool". NASA. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- ^"Astronaut Bio: Charles F. Bolden Jr". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
- ^"A Conversation with Charles F. Bolden Jr., NASA Administrator". Transcript. Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- ^NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. to Receive the National Space Trophy, Rotary National Award for Space Achievement; retrieved February 1, 2016.
- ^Bar-Ilan Honorary Doctorate Convocation, 2016 in Bar-Ilan University facebook page, retrieved 13 June 2016.
- ^Former NASA Chief Bolden Among 5 to Receive Honorary Degrees, retrieved 31 May 2017.
For other uses, see Charles Bowden (disambiguation).
Charles Clyde Bowden (July 20, 1945 – August 30, 2014) was an American non-fiction author, journalist and essayist based in Las Cruces, New Mexico.
He attended the University of Arizona and then the University of Wisconsin, where he obtained his master's degree in American intellectual history; while there he walked out as he was defending his dissertation for his doctorate, annoyed by the questions asked him by the review committee. He was a writer for the Tucson Citizen and often wrote about the American Southwest. He was a contributing editor of GQ and Mother Jones magazine, and wrote for other periodicals including Harper's Magazine, The New York Times Book Review, Esquire, High Country News, and Aperture.
Bowden was the winner of the 1996 Lannan Literary Award for Nonfiction, and a 2010 award from United States Artists. He grew up in Chicago but lived most of his life in Tucson, Arizona. He was known for his writings on the situation at the US–Mexico border and wrote often about the effects of the War on Drugs on the lives of the people in that region.
He died in Las Cruces, New Mexico, on August 30, 2014, after a brief illness. He was survived by his son and two siblings.
- The Impact of Energy Development on Water Resources in Arid Lands: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography (Tucson: University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies, 1975)
- Killing the Hidden Waters (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977)
- Street Signs Chicago: Neighborhood and Other Illusions of Big City Life / by Charles Bowden and Lew Kreinberg; photographs by Richard Younker; foreword by William Appleman Williams (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 1981)
- Blue Desert (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1986)
- Frog Mountain Blues photographs by Jack W. Dykinga. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1987)
- Trust Me: Charles Keating and the Missing Billions (1988) with Michael Binstein
- Mezcal (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988)
- Red Line (New York: Norton, 1989)
- Desierto: Memories of the Future (1991)
- The Sonoran Desert / photographs by Jack W. Dykinga; text by Charles Bowden. (New York: H. N. Abrams, 1992)
- The Secret Forest / text by Charles Bowden; photographs by Jack W. Dykinga; introduction by Paul S. Martin (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993)
- Seasons of the Coyote: the Legend and Lore of an American Icon / essays by Charles Bowden et al. (San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins West, 1994)
- Frog Mountain Blues ; photographs by Jack W. Dykinga; with a new afterword by the author (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994)
- Blood Orchid: An Unnatural History of America (1995)
- Chihuahua: Pictures From the Edge / photographs by Virgil Hancock; essay by Charles Bowden (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996)
- Stone Canyons of the Colorado Plateau / photographs by Jack W. Dykinga; text by Charles Bowden (New York: Abrams, 1996)
- The Sierra Pinacate / Julian D. Hayden; photographs by Jack Dykinga; with essays by Charles Bowden & Bernard L. Fontana (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998)
- Juárez: The Laboratory of our Future, preface by Noam Chomsky; afterword by Eduardo Galeano (1998)
- Torch Song (essay) 1999
- Paul Dickerson, 1961-1997 (essay by Charles Bowden; New York: American Fine Art Co., 2000)
- Eugene Richards (New York, NY: Phaidon, 2001)
- Down by the River: Drugs, Money, Murder, and Family (2002)
- Blues for Cannibals (2002)
- Killing the Hidden Waters [with a new introduction by the author] (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003)
- A Shadow in the City : Confessions of an Undercover Drug Warrior (2005)
- Inferno (photographs by Michael P. Berman; Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2006)(winner of the Border Regional Library Association's Southwest Book Award)
- Exodus/Éxodo (text by Charles Bowden, photographs by Julián Cardona) (2008)
- Kill the Messenger: How the CIA's Crack-Cocaine Controversy Destroyed Journalist Gary Webb by Nick Schou; preface by Charles Bowden (2006)
- Some of the Dead are Still Breathing: Living in the Future (2009)
- Murder City: Ciudad Juarez and the Global Economy's New Killing Fields (2010)
- Dreamland: The Way Out of Juarez (2010); with illustrations by Alice Leora Briggs
- El Sicario: The Autobiography of a Mexican Assassin (2011) by Molly Molloy (Editor), Charles Bowden (Editor)
- Dead When I Got Here: Asylum from the madness (2014); Executive Producer of Documentary in collaboration with Director/Producer Mark Aitken - deadwhenigothere.org
- The Charles Bowden Papers 1947-2007 (50 linear feet) are housed at the Wittliff Collections, Texas State University in San Marcos.