Tim Cocky Bibliography Creator

Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character; created in 1938 by Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons) and voiced originally by Mel Blanc.[2] Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Due to his popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment.[3]

Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray hare or rabbit who is famous for his flippant, insouciant personality. He is also characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, and his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?". Though the Warner Bros. cartoon unit began featuring a similar rabbit character during the late 1930s, the definitive character of Bugs Bunny is widely credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare (1940).[1]

Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, comic books, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, and commercials. He has also appeared in more films than any other cartoon character,[4] is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world,[4] and has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[5]

Animation history[edit]

Development[edit]

Main article: Development of Bugs Bunny

According to Chase Craig, who later wrote and drew the first Bugs Bunny comic Sunday pages and the first Bugs comic book, "Bugs was not the creation of any one man; however, he rather represented the creative talents of perhaps five or six directors and many cartoon writers. In those days, the stories were often the work of a group who suggested various gags, bounced them around and finalized them in a joint story conference."[6] A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking very different, was originally featured in the film Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by Ben "Bugs" Hardaway and an uncredited Cal Dalton (who was responsible for the initial design of the rabbit). This cartoon has an almost identical plot to Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt (1937), which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey who is more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit. The rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would later use for Woody Woodpecker. Hare Hunt also gives its rabbit the famous Groucho Marx line, "Of course you realize, this means war!" The rabbit character was popular enough with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again.[7][8] According to Friz Freleng, Hardaway and Dalton had decided to dress the duck in a rabbit suit.[9] The white rabbit had an oval head and a shapeless body. In characterization, he was "a rural buffoon". He was loud, zany with a goofy, guttural laugh. Blanc provided him with a hayseed voice.[10]

The rabbit comes back in Prest-O Change-O (1939), directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house. The rabbit harasses them but is ultimately bested by the bigger of the two dogs. This version of the rabbit was cool, graceful, and controlled. He retained the guttural laugh but was otherwise silent.[10]

The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um (1939), directed again by Dalton and Hardaway. This cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is also notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name. He had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet that he drew for Hardaway.[8][11] In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny (quotation marks only used, on and off, until 1944).[12] In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit."[13] In the actual cartoons and publicity, however, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway."[14]

Thorson had been approached by Tedd Pierce, head of the story department, and asked to design a better rabbit. The decision was influenced by Thorson's experience in designing hares. He had designed Max Hare in Toby Tortoise Returns (Disney, 1936). For Hardaway, Thorson created the model sheet previously mentioned, with six different rabbit poses. Thorson's model sheet is "a comic rendition of the stereotypical fuzzy bunny". He had a pear-shaped body with a protruding rear end. His face was flat and had large expressive eyes. He had an exaggerated long neck, gloved hands with three fingers, oversized feet, and a "smart aleck" grin. The end result was influenced by Walt Disney Animation Studios' tendency to draw animals in the style of cute infants.[9] He had an obvious Disney influence, but looked like an awkward merger of the lean and streamlined Max Hare from The Tortoise and the Hare (1935), and the round, soft bunnies from Little Hiawatha (1937).[10]

In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera (1940), the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd. This time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs, taller and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is also different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though Arthur Q. Bryan's character voice is already established.

Official debut[edit]

While Porky's Hare Hunt was the first Warner Bros. cartoon to feature a Bugs Bunny-like rabbit, A Wild Hare, directed by Tex Avery and released on July 27, 1940, is widely considered to be the first official Bugs Bunny cartoon.[1][15] It is the first film where both Elmer Fudd and Bugs, both redesigned by Bob Givens, are shown in their fully developed forms as hunter and tormentor, respectively; the first in which Mel Blanc uses what would become Bugs' standard voice; and the first in which Bugs uses his catchphrase, "What's up, Doc?"[16]A Wild Hare was a huge success in theaters and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Cartoon Short Subject.[17]

For the film, Avery asked Givens to remodel the rabbit. The result had a closer resemblance to Max Hare. He had a more elongated body, stood more erect, and looked more poised. If Thorson's rabbit looked like an infant, Givens' version looked like an adolescent.[9] Blanc gave Bugs the voice of a city slicker. The rabbit was as audacious as he had been in Hare-um Scare-um and as cool and collected as in Prest-O Change-O.[10]

Immediately following on A Wild Hare, Bob Clampett's Patient Porky (1940) features a cameo appearance by Bugs, announcing to the audience that 750 rabbits have been born. The gag uses Bugs' Wild Hare visual design, but his goofier pre-Wild Hare voice characterization.

The second full-fledged role for the mature Bugs, Chuck Jones' Elmer's Pet Rabbit (1941), is the first to use Bugs' name on-screen: it appears in a title card, "featuring Bugs Bunny," at the start of the film (which was edited in following the success of A Wild Hare). However, Bugs' voice and personality in this cartoon is noticeably different, and his design was slightly altered as well; Bugs' visual design is based on the prototype rabbit in Candid Camera, but with yellow gloves and no buck teeth, has a lower-pitched voice and a more aggressive, arrogant and thuggish personality instead of a fun-loving personality. After Pet Rabbit, however, subsequent Bugs appearances returned to normal: the Wild Hare visual design and personality returned, and Blanc re-used the Wild Hare voice characterization.

Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt (1941), directed by Friz Freleng, became the second Bugs Bunny cartoon to receive an Academy Award nomination.[18] The fact that it didn't win the award was later spoofed somewhat in What's Cookin' Doc? (1944), in which Bugs demands a recount (claiming to be a victim of "sa-bo-TAH-gee") after losing the Oscar to James Cagney and presents a clip from Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt to prove his point.[19]

World War II[edit]

By 1942, Bugs had become the number one star of Merrie Melodies. The series was originally intended only for one-shot characters in films after several early attempts to introduce characters (Foxy, Goopy Geer, and Piggy) failed under Harman–Ising. By the mid-1930s, under Leon Schlesinger, Merrie Melodies started introducing newer characters. Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid (1942) shows a slight redesign of Bugs, with less-prominent front teeth and a rounder head. The character was reworked by Robert McKimson, then an animator in Clampett's unit. The redesign at first was only used in the films created by Clampett's unit, but in time it would be taken up by the other directors, with Freleng and Frank Tashlin the first. When McKimson was himself promoted to director, he created yet another version, with more slanted eyes, longer teeth and a much larger mouth. He used this version until 1949 (as did Art Davis for the one Bugs Bunny film he directed, Bowery Bugs) when he started using the version he had designed for Clampett. Jones would come up with his own slight modification, and the voice had slight variations between the units.[11] Bugs also made cameos in Avery's final Warner Bros. cartoon, Crazy Cruise.[20]

Since Bugs' debut in A Wild Hare, he appeared only in color Merrie Melodies films (making him one of the few recurring characters created for that series in the Schlesinger era prior to the full conversion to color), alongside Elmer predecessor Egghead, Inki, Sniffles, and Elmer himself. While Bugs made a cameo in Porky Pig's Feat (1943), this was his only appearance in a black-and-white Looney Tunes film. He did not star in a Looney Tunes film until that series made its complete conversion to only color cartoons beginning in 1944. Buckaroo Bugs was Bugs' first film in the Looney Tunes series and was also the last Warner Bros. cartoon to credit Schlesinger (as he had retired and sold his studio to Warner Bros. that year).[19]

Bugs was used to advertise World War II because they were low on troops so they found out the most athletic adults watched Bugs Bunny so they used that to attract them into the war so they could fight.[21] In company with cartoon studios such as Disney and Famous Studios, Warners pitted its characters against Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Francisco Franco, and the Japanese. Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips (1944) features Bugs at odds with a group of Japanese soldiers. This cartoon has since been pulled from distribution due to its depiction of Japanese people.[22] One US Navypropaganda film saved from destruction features the voice of Mel Blanc in "Tokyo Woes"[23] (1945) about the propaganda radio host Tokyo Rose. He also faces off against Hermann Göring and Hitler in Herr Meets Hare (1945), which introduced his well-known reference to Albuquerque as he mistakenly winds up in the Black Forest of 'Joimany' instead of Las Vegas, Nevada.[24] Bugs also appeared in the 1942 two-minute U.S. war bonds commercial film Any Bonds Today?, along with Porky and Elmer.

At the end of Super-Rabbit (1943), Bugs appears wearing a United States Marine Corps dress blue uniform. As a result, the Marine Corps made Bugs an honorary Marine master sergeant.[25] From 1943 to 1946, Bugs was the official mascot of Kingman Army Airfield, Kingman, Arizona, where thousands of aerial gunners were trained during World War II. Some notable trainees included Clark Gable and Charles Bronson. Bugs also served as the mascot for 530 Squadron of the 380th Bombardment Group, 5th Air Force, U.S. Air Force, which was attached to the Royal Australian Air Force and operated out of Australia's Northern Territory from 1943 to 1945, flying B-24 Liberator bombers.[26] Bugs riding an air delivered torpedo served as the squadron logo for Marine Torpedo/Bomber Squadron 242 in the Second World War. Additionally, Bugs appeared on the nose of B-24J #42-110157, in both the 855th Bomb Squadron of the 491st Bombardment Group (Heavy) and later in the 786th BS of the 466th BG(H), both being part of the 8th Air Force operating out of England.

In 1944, Bugs Bunny made a cameo appearance in Jasper Goes Hunting, a Puppetoons film produced by rival studio Paramount Pictures. In this cameo (animated by McKimson, with Blanc providing the usual voice), Bugs (after being threatened at gunpoint) pops out of a rabbit hole, saying his usual catchphrase; after hearing the orchestra play the wrong theme song, he realizes "Hey, I'm in the wrong picture!" and then goes back in the hole.[27] Bugs also made a cameo in the Private Snafu short Gas, in which he is found stowed away in the titular private's belongings; his only spoken line is his usual catchphrase.

Although it was usually Porky Pig who brought the Looney Tunes films to a close with his stuttering, "That's all, folks!", Bugs replaced him at the end of Hare Tonic and Baseball Bugs, bursting through a drum just as Porky did, but munching on a carrot and saying in his Bronx-Brooklyn accent, "And that's the end!"

Post-war era[edit]

After World War II, Bugs continued to appear in numerous Warner Bros. cartoons, making his last "Golden Age" appearance in False Hare (1964). He starred in over 167 theatrical short films, most of which were directed by Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson, and Chuck Jones. Freleng's Knighty Knight Bugs (1958), in which a medieval Bugs trades blows with Yosemite Sam and his fire-breathing dragon (which has a cold), won an Academy Award for Best Cartoon Short Subject (becoming the first Bugs Bunny cartoon to win said award).[28] Three of Jones' films — Rabbit Fire, Rabbit Seasoning, and Duck! Rabbit, Duck! — compose what is often referred to as the "Rabbit Season/Duck Season" trilogy and are famous for originating the "historic" rivalry between Bugs and Daffy Duck.[29] Jones' classic What's Opera, Doc? (1957), casts Bugs and Elmer Fudd in a parody of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. It was deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 1992, becoming the first cartoon short to receive this honor.[30]

In the fall of 1960, ABC debuted the prime-time television program The Bugs Bunny Show. This show packaged many of the post-1948 Warners cartoons with newly animated wraparounds. After two seasons, it was moved from its evening slot to reruns on Saturday mornings. The Bugs Bunny Show changed format and exact title frequently but remained on network television for 40 years. The packaging was later completely different, with each cartoon simply presented on its own, title and all, though some clips from the new bridging material were sometimes used as filler.[31]

Later years[edit]

Bugs did not appear in any of the post-1964 Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies films produced by DePatie-Freleng Enterprises or Seven Arts Productions, nor did he appear in the lone Looney TunesTV special produced by Filmation. He would not appear in new material on-screen again until Bugs and Daffy's Carnival of the Animals aired in 1976.

From the late 1970s through the early 1990s, Bugs was featured in various animated specials for network television, such as Bugs Bunny's Thanksgiving Diet, Bugs Bunny's Looney Christmas Tales, and Bugs Bunny's Bustin' Out All Over. Bugs also starred in several theatrical compilation features during this time, including the United Artists distributed documentary Bugs Bunny: Superstar (1975)[32][33] and Warner Bros.' own releases: The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie (1979), The Looney Looney Looney Bugs Bunny Movie (1981), Bugs Bunny's 3rd Movie: 1001 Rabbit Tales (1982), and Daffy Duck's Quackbusters (1988).

In the 1988 live-action/animated comedy, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Bugs appeared as one of the inhabitants of Toontown. However, since the film was being produced by Disney, Warner Bros. would only allow the use of their biggest star if he got an equal amount of screen time as Disney's biggest star, Mickey Mouse. Because of this, both characters are always together in frame when onscreen. Roger Rabbit was also one of the final productions in which Mel Blanc voiced Bugs (as well as the other Looney Tunes characters) before his death in 1989.

Bugs later appeared in another animated production featuring numerous characters from rival studios: the 1990 drug prevention TV special Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue.[34][35][36] This special is notable for being the first time that someone other than Blanc voiced Bugs and Daffy (both characters were voiced by Jeff Bergman for this). Bugs also made guest appearances in the early 1990s television series Tiny Toon Adventures, as the principal of Acme Looniversity and the mentor of Buster Bunny. He made further cameos in Warner Bros.' subsequent animated TV shows Taz-Mania, Animaniacs, and Histeria!

Bugs returned to the silver screen in Box-Office Bunny (1991). This was the first Bugs Bunny cartoon since 1964 to be released in theaters and it was created for Bugs' 50th anniversary celebration. It was followed by (Blooper) Bunny, a cartoon that was shelved from theaters,[37] but later premiered on Cartoon Network in 1997 and has since gained a cult following among animation fans for its edgy humor.[38][39][40]

In 1996, Bugs and the other Looney Tunes characters appeared in the live-action/animated film, Space Jam, directed by Joe Pytka and starring NBA superstar Michael Jordan. The film also introduced the character Lola Bunny, who becomes Bugs' new love interest. Space Jam received mixed reviews from critics,[41][42] but was a box office success (grossing over $230 million worldwide).[43] The success of Space Jam led to the development of another live-action/animated film, Looney Tunes: Back in Action, released in 2003 and directed by Joe Dante. Unlike Space Jam, Back in Action was a box-office bomb,[44] though it did receive more positive reviews from critics.[45][46][47]

In 1997, Bugs appeared on a U.S. postage stamp, the first cartoon to be so honored, beating the iconic Mickey Mouse. The stamp is number seven on the list of the ten most popular U.S. stamps, as calculated by the number of stamps purchased but not used. The introduction of Bugs onto a stamp was controversial at the time, as it was seen as a step toward the 'commercialization' of stamp art. The postal service rejected many designs and went with a postal-themed drawing. Avery Dennison printed the Bugs Bunny stamp sheet, which featured "a special ten-stamp design and was the first self-adhesive souvenir sheet issued by the U.S. Postal Service."[48]

More recent years[edit]

A younger version of Bugs is the main character of Baby Looney Tunes, which debuted on Kids' WB in 2001. In the action comedy Loonatics Unleashed, his definite descendant Ace Bunny is the leader of the Loonatics team and seems to have inherited his ancestor's Brooklyn accent and comic wit.[49]

In 2011, Bugs Bunny and the rest of the Looney Tunes gang returned to television in the Cartoon Network sitcom, The Looney Tunes Show. The characters feature new designs by artist Jessica Borutski. Among the changes to Bugs' appearance were the simplification and enlargement of his feet, as well as a change to his fur from gray to a shade of mauve (though in the second season, his fur was changed back to gray).[50] In the series, Bugs and Daffy Duck are portrayed as best friends as opposed to their usual pairing as rivals. At the same time, Bugs is more openly annoyed at Daffy's antics in the series (sometimes to the point of aggression), compared to his usual carefree personality from the original cartoons. Bugs and Daffy are close friends with Porky Pig in the series, although Bugs tends to be a more reliable friend to Porky than Daffy is. Bugs also dates Lola Bunny in the show despite the fact that he finds her to be "crazy" and a bit too talkative at first (he later learns to accept her personality quirks, similar to his tolerance for Daffy). Unlike the original cartoons, Bugs lives in a regular home which he shares with Daffy, Taz (whom he treats as a pet dog) and Speedy Gonzales, in the middle of a cul-de-sac with their neighbors Yosemite Sam, Granny, and Witch Lezah.

In 2015, Bugs starred in the direct-to-video film Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run,[51] and later returned to television yet again as the star of Cartoon Network and Boomerang's comedy series New Looney Tunes (formerly Wabbit).[52][53]

Bugs has also appeared in numerous video games, including the Bugs Bunny's Crazy Castle series, Bugs Bunny Birthday Blowout, Bugs Bunny: Rabbit Rampage, Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble, Looney Tunes B-Ball, Looney Tunes Racing, Looney Tunes: Space Race, Bugs Bunny Lost in Time, Bugs Bunny and Taz Time Busters, Loons: The Fight for Fame, Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal, Scooby Doo and Looney Tunes: Cartoon Universe,Looney Tunes Dash and Looney Tunes World of Mayhem.

Personality and catchphrases[edit]

"Some people call me cocky and brash, but actually I am just self-assured. I'm nonchalant, im­perturbable, contemplative. I play it cool, but I can get hot under the collar. And above all I'm a very 'aware' character. I'm well aware that I am appearing in an animated car­toon....And sometimes I chomp on my carrot for the same reason that a stand-up comic chomps on his cigar. It saves me from rushing from the last joke to the next one too fast. And I sometimes don't act, I react. And I always treat the contest with my pursuers as 'fun and games.' When momentarily I appear to be cornered or in dire danger and I scream, don't be consoined – it's actually a big put-on. Let's face it, Doc. I've read the script and I al­ready know how it turns out."

—Bob Clampett on Bugs Bunny, written in first person.[54]

Bugs Bunny is characterized as being clever and capable of outsmarting anyone who antagonizes him, including Elmer Fudd, Yosemite Sam, Tasmanian Devil, Marvin the Martian, Wile E. Coyote, Gossamer, Witch Hazel, Rocky and Mugsy, The Crusher, Beaky Buzzard, Willoughby the Dog, Count Blood Count, Daffy Duck and a host of others.

One of the characters who holds the rare distinction of defeating Bugs is Cecil Turtle, following the pattern Aesop's famous fableThe Tortoise and the Hare, where the rabbit was the antagonist, while the turtle was the protagonist (Bugs and Cecil, respectively). Their encounters were depicted in Tortoise Beats Hare, Tortoise Wins by a Hare, and Rabbit Transit.

Bugs almost always wins these conflicts, a plot pattern which recurs in Looney Tunes films directed by Chuck Jones. Concerned that viewers would lose sympathy for an aggressive protagonist who always won, Jones arranged for Bugs to be bullied, cheated, or threatened by the antagonists while minding his own business, justifying his subsequent antics as retaliation or self-defense. He's also been known to break the fourth wall by "communicating" with the audience, either by explaining the situation (e.g. "Be with you in a minute, folks!"), describing someone to the audience (e.g. "Feisty, ain't they?"), clueing in on the story (e.g. "That happens to him all during the picture, folks."), explaining that one of his antagonists' actions have pushed him to the breaking point ("Of course you realize, this means war."), admitting his own deviousness toward his antagonists ("Ain't I a stinker?"), etc.

Bugs will usually try to placate the antagonist and avoid conflict, but when an antagonist pushes him too far, Bugs may address the audience and invoke his catchphrase "Of course you realize this means war!" before he retaliates, and the retaliation will be devastating. This line was taken from Groucho Marx and others in the 1933 film Duck Soup and was also used in the 1935 Marx film A Night at the Opera.[55] Bugs would pay homage to Groucho in other ways, such as occasionally adopting his stooped walk or leering eyebrow-raising (in Hair-Raising Hare, for example) or sometimes with a direct impersonation (as in Slick Hare). Other directors, such as Friz Freleng, characterized Bugs as altruistic. When Bugs meets other successful characters (such as Cecil Turtle in Tortoise Beats Hare, or the Gremlin in Falling Hare), his overconfidence becomes a disadvantage.

Bugs' nonchalant carrot-chewing standing position, as explained by Freleng, Jones and Bob Clampett, originated in a scene from the 1934 film It Happened One Night, in which Clark Gable's character Peter Warne leans against a fence, eating carrots rapidly and talking with his mouth full to Claudette Colbert's character. This scene was well known while the film was popular, and viewers at the time likely recognized Bugs Bunny's behavior as satire. Coincidentally, the film also features a minor character, Oscar Shapely, who addresses Peter Warne as "Doc", and Warne mentions an imaginary person named "Bugs Dooley" to frighten Shapely.[56]

"'What's up Doc?' is a very simple thing. It's only funny because it's in a situation. It was an all Bugs Bunny line. It wasn't funny. If you put it in human terms; you come home late one night from work, you walk up to the gate in the yard, you walk through the gate and up into the front room, the door is partly open and there's some guy shooting under your living room. So what do you do? You run if you have any sense, the least you can do is call the cops. But what if you come up and tap him on the shoulder and look over and say 'What's up Doc?' You're interested in what he's doing. That's ridiculous. That's not what you say at a time like that. So that's why it's funny, I think. In other words it's asking a perfectly legitimate question in a perfectly illogical situation."

—Chuck Jones on Bugs Bunny's catchphrase "What's up Doc?"[57]

The carrot-chewing scenes are generally followed by Bugs' most well-known catchphrase, "What's up, Doc?", which was written by director Tex Avery for his first Bugs Bunny film, A Wild Hare (1940). Avery explained later that it was a common expression in his native Texas and that he did not think much of the phrase. When the cartoon was first screened in theaters, the "What's up, Doc?" scene generated a tremendously positive audience reaction.[16] As a result, the scene became a recurring element in subsequent cartoons. The phrase was sometimes modified for a situation. For example, Bugs says "What's up, dogs?" to the antagonists in A Hare Grows in Manhattan, "What's up, Duke?" to the knight in Knight-mare Hare, and "What's up, prune-face?" to the aged Elmer in The Old Grey Hare. He might also greet Daffy with "What's up, Duck?" He used one variation, "What's all the hub-bub, bub?" only once, in Falling Hare. Another variation is used in Looney Tunes: Back in Action when he greets a blaster-wielding Marvin the Martian saying "What's up, Darth?"

In many of Bugs' appearances in the 1940s Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes shorts, his carrot-chewing made its way into the opening sequence of the cartoon. In these cases, Bugs would be lying atop the Warner Brothers shield logo as it came onto the screen and eating his carrot. After a few seconds, Bugs would stop eating and shoot the audience a dirty look for staring at him. From there, one of two things would happen. Frequently, the open would simply dissolve into the cartoon series logo, but on occasion, Bugs would reach up to the top of the screen and pull the logo down like a curtain to give himself some privacy. This formed the basis for the later intro to Bugs' cartoons, where he would pull the bottom of the screen up and be shown sitting atop his own intro screen while eating a carrot.

Several Chuck Jones films in the late 1940s and 1950s depict Bugs travelling via cross-country (and, in some cases, intercontinental) tunnel-digging, ending up in places as varied as Barcelona, Spain (Bully for Bugs), the Himalayas (The Abominable Snow Rabbit), and Antarctica (Frigid Hare) all because he " knew (he) shoulda taken that left toin at Albukoikee." He first utters that phrase in Herr Meets Hare (1945), when he emerges in the Black Forest, a cartoon seldom seen today due to its blatantly topical subject matter. When Hermann Göring says to Bugs, "There is no Las Vegas in 'Chermany'" and takes a potshot at Bugs, Bugs dives into his hole and says, "Joimany! Yipe!", as Bugs realizes he is behind enemy lines. The confused response to his "left toin" comment also followed a pattern. For example, when he tunnels into Scotland in My Bunny Lies over the Sea (1948), while thinking he is heading for the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California, it provides another chance for an ethnic joke: "Therrre arrre no La Brrrea Tarrr Pits in Scotland!" (to which Bugs responds, "Scotland!? Eh...what's up, Mac-doc?"). A couple of late-1950s/early-1960s cartoons of this ilk also featured Daffy Duck travelling with Bugs ("Hey, wait a minute! Since when is Pismo Beach inside a cave?").

Voice actors[edit]

The following are the various vocal artists who have voiced Bugs Bunny over the last 75-plus years for Warner Bros.' animated productions:

Mel Blanc

Mel Blanc voiced the character for almost 50 years, from Bugs' debut in the 1940 short A Wild Hare until Blanc's death in 1989. Blanc described the voice as a combination of Bronx and Brooklyn accents; however, Tex Avery claimed that he asked Blanc to give the character not a New York accent per se, but a voice like that of actor Frank McHugh, who frequently appeared in supporting roles in the 1930s and whose voice might be described as New York Irish.[11] In Bugs' second cartoon Elmer's Pet Rabbit, Blanc created a completely new voice for Bugs, which sounded like a Jimmy Stewart impression, but the directors decided the previous voice was better. Though Blanc's best known character was the carrot-chomping rabbit, munching on the carrots interrupted the dialogue. Various substitutes, such as celery, were tried, but none of them sounded like a carrot. So for the sake of expedience, he would munch and then spit the carrot bits into a spittoon rather than swallowing them, and continue with the dialogue. One often-repeated story, possibly originating from Bugs Bunny: Superstar, is that Blanc was allergic to carrots and had to spit them out to minimize any allergic reaction — but his autobiography makes no such claim.[13] In fact, in a 1984 interview with Tim Lawson, co-author of The Magic Behind The Voices: A Who's Who of Voice Actors, Blanc emphatically denied being allergic to carrots.

Others
  • Jeff Bergman (Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue, Happy Birthday, Bugs!: 50 Looney Years, The Earth Day Special, Gremlins 2: The New Batch, Tiny Toon Adventures, Bugs Bunny's Overtures to Disaster, Box Office Bunny, (Blooper) Bunny, Bugs Bunny's Lunar Tunes, Bugs Bunny's Creature Features, Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers, Pride of the Martians, Saturday Night Live Season 28, Ep. 14, The Looney Tunes Show, Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run, New Looney Tunes, video games)[58]
  • Greg Burson (Tiny Toon Adventures, Taz-Mania, Animaniacs, Carrotblanca, Looney Tunes River Ride, From Hare to Eternity)[58]
  • Noel Blanc (Tiny Toon Adventures)[58]
  • John Kassir (Tiny Toon Adventures)[58]
  • Billy West (Space Jam, Histeria!, Quest for Camelot Sing-a-Longs, Looney Tunes Sing-a-Longs, Looney Tunes: Reality Check, Looney Tunes: Stranger Than Fiction,Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas, video games)[58]
  • Joe Alaskey (Tweety's High-Flying Adventure, Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Hare and Loathing in Las Vegas, Daffy Duck for President, Justice League: The New Frontier, Looney Tunes ClickN READ Phonics, TomTomLooney TunesGPS,[59] video games)[58]
  • Samuel Vincent (Baby Looney Tunes, Baby Looney Tunes: Egg-straordinary Adventure)[58]
  • Bill Farmer (Robot Chicken)[58]

Reception and legacy[edit]

Like Mickey Mouse for Disney, Bugs Bunny has served as the mascot for Warner Bros. and its various divisions. According to Guinness World Records, Bugs has appeared in more films (both short and feature-length) than any other cartoon character, and is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world.[4] On December 10, 1985, Bugs became the second cartoon character (after Mickey) to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[5]

He also has been a pitchman for companies including Kool-Aid and Nike. His Nike commercials with Michael Jordan as "Hare Jordan" for the Air Jordan VII and VIII became precursors to Space Jam.[60][61] As a result, he has spent time as an honorary member of Jordan Brand, including having Jordan's Jumpman logo done in his image. In 2015, as part of the 30th anniversary of Jordan Brand, Nike released a mid-top Bugs Bunny version of the Air Jordan I, named the "Air Jordan Mid 1 Hare", along with a women's equivalent inspired by Lola Bunny called the "Air Jordan Mid 1 Lola", along with a commercial featuring Bugs and Ahmad Rashad.[62]

In 2002, TV Guide compiled a list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time as part of the magazine's 50th anniversary. Bugs Bunny was given the honor of number 1.[63][64] In a CNN broadcast on July 31, 2002, a TV Guide editor talked about the group that created the list. The editor also explained why Bugs pulled top billing: "His stock...has never gone down...Bugs is the best example...of the smart-aleck American comic. He not only is a great cartoon character, he's a great comedian. He was written well. He was drawn beautifully. He has thrilled and made many generations laugh. He is tops."[65] Some have noted that comedian Eric Andre is the nearest contemporary comedic equivalent to Bugs. They attribute this to, "their ability to constantly flip the script on their unwitting counterparts."[66]

Notable films[edit]

See also: List of Bugs Bunny cartoons

Language[edit]

American use of the term Nimrod to mean "idiot" is attributed (in Garner's Modern American Usage) entirely to Bugs's expostulation "What a Nimrod!" to describe the inept hunter Elmer Fudd.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

A depiction of Bugs' evolution throughout the years.
Mel Blanc was the original voice of Bugs and would voice the character for nearly five decades.
Statue evoking Bugs Bunny at Butterfly Park Bangladesh.
  1. ^ abcdAdamson, Joe (1990). Bugs Bunny: 50 Years and Only One Grey Hare. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-1855-7. 
  2. ^"Mel Blanc". Behind the Voice Actors. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  3. ^"Bugs Bunny: The Trickster, American Style". Weekend Edition Sunday. NPR. January 6, 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 
  4. ^ abc"Most Portrayed Character in Film". Guinness World Records. May 2011. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. 
  5. ^ ab"Bugs Bunny". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  6. ^Chase Craig recollections of "Michael Maltese," Chase Craig Collection, CSUN
  7. ^bp2.blogger.com[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ ab"Bugs Bunny'&#39". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  9. ^ abcWalz (1998), p. 49-67
  10. ^ abcdBarrier (2003), p. 359-362
  11. ^ abcBarrier, Michael (2003-11-06). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. United States: Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0. 
  12. ^"Leading the Animation Conversation » Rare 1939 Looney Tunes Book found!". Cartoon Brew. 2008-04-03. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  13. ^ abBlanc, Mel; Bashe, Philip (1989). That's Not All, Folks!. Clayton South, VIC, Australia: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-51244-3. 
  14. ^"Looney Tunes Hidden Gags". Gregbrian.tripod.com. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  15. ^

For the alloy, see mu-metal. For "new metal" music, see Heavy metal music § Recent styles: mid–late 2000s and 2010s.

Nu metal (also known as nü-metal and aggro-metal) is a form of alternative metal that combines elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, thrash, funk, industrial and grunge. Nu metal bands have drawn elements and influences from a variety of musical styles, including multiple genres of heavy metal. Nu metal rarely features guitar solos; the genre is heavily syncopated and based on guitarriffs. Many nu metal guitarists use seven-string guitars that are down-tuned to play a heavier sound. DJs are occasionally featured in nu metal to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Vocal styles in nu metal include singing, rapping, screaming and growling. Nu metal is one of the key genres of the new wave of American heavy metal.

Nu metal became popular in the late 1990s with bands and artists such as Korn, Limp Bizkit, and Kid Rock all releasing albums that sold millions of copies. Nu metal's popularity continued during the early 2000s, with bands such as Papa Roach, Staind, and P.O.D. all selling multi-platinum albums, and came to a peak with Linkin Park's diamond-selling album Hybrid Theory. However, by the mid-2000s, the oversaturation of bands combined with the under-performance of a number of high-profile releases led to nu metal's decline, leading to the rise of metalcore and many nu metal bands disbanding or abandoning their established sound in favor of other genres.

During the 2010s, there has been a minor nu metal revival; many bands that combine nu metal with other genres (for example, metalcore) emerged and some nu metal bands from the 1990s and early 2000s returned to the nu metal sound. Many heavy metal fans have criticized nu metal, and do not regard it as "true heavy metal". Many nu metal musicians have rejected the nu metal label, and some have also rejected being labeled as heavy metal.

Characteristics and fashion[edit]

Terminology and origins[edit]

Nu metal is also known as nü-metal[4][5] and aggro-metal.[6][7] It is a subgenre of alternative metal.[6][8]MTV states that the early nu metal group Korn "arrived in 1993 into the burgeoning alternative metal scene, which would morph into nü-metal the way college rock became alternative rock."[8]Stereogum has similarly claimed that nu metal was a "weird outgrowth of the Lollapalooza-era alt-metal scene".[9] Nu metal merges elements of heavy metal music[6][10][11] with elements of other music genres such as grunge,[6]hip hop,[6][12] and alternative rock.[13]

Nu metal bands have been influenced by and have used elements of a variety of musical genres, including electronic music, funk, gothic rock, hardcore punk, punk rock, dance music, new wave, jazz, post-punk, symphonic rock and synth-pop.[6][10][15][16] Nu metal bands also are influenced by and use elements of genres of heavy metal music such as death metal, rap metal, groove metal, funk metal, and thrash metal.[6][10] Some nu metal bands, such as Static-X[19] and Dope,[20] made nu metal music with elements of industrial metal. In contrast with other heavy metal subgenres, nu metal tends to use the same structure of verses, choruses and bridges as those in pop music.[21][22]

Musical characteristics[edit]

Instrumentation[edit]

Nu metal is heavily syncopated and is based mostly on guitarriffs.[5] Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres of heavy metal.[5][24] Kory Grow of Revolver wrote, "... [i]n its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal effectively drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo".[25] Another contrast with other heavy metal genres is nu metal's emphasis on rhythm, rather than on complexity or mood, often its rhythm sounds like that of groove metal.[10] The wah pedal is occasionally featured in nu metal music.[25] Nu metal guitar riffs occasionally are similar to those of death metal.

Nu metal bassists and drummers are often influenced by funk and hip hop, respectively, adding to nu metal's rhythmic nature.[26][27]Blast beats, which are common in heavy metal subgenres such as black metal and death metal, are extremely rare in nu metal.[21] Nu metal's similarities with many heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures primarily revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygianmodes.[5] While loud and heavily distorted electric guitars are a core feature of all metal genres, nu metal guitarists took the sounds of "violence and destruction" to new levels with their overdriven guitar tone, which music journalists Kitts and Tolinski compared to the "...sound [of] a Mack truck being crushed by a collapsing skyscraper."[28]

Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars[29] that are generally down-tuned,[21][30] rather than traditional six-string guitars. Likewise, some bass guitarists use five-string and six-string instruments.[31]Bass guitar-playing in nu metal often features an emphasis on funk elements.[29] In nu metal music, DJs are sometimes featured to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds.Nu metal tends to have hip hop grooves and rhythms.[24][29]

The punk-driven sound of Hed PE, especially its turntablism, has been credited for helping shape the sound of nu metal.[32]

Vocals[edit]

Vocal styles used in nu metal music include singing,rapping,[24][33]screaming[21][33] and growling.[33] Vocals in nu metal are often rhythmic and influenced by hip hop.[34] Although some nu metal bands, such as Limp Bizkit[35] and Linkin Park[36][37] have rapping in their music, some nu metal bands, such as Godsmack[38] and Staind,[39] do not feature rapping.

Nu metal bands occasionally feature hip hop musicians as guests in their songs; Korn's song "Children of the Korn" features the rapper Ice Cube, who performed on the band's 1998 Family Values Tour.[40][41] The hip hop musician Nas was featured on Korn's song "Play Me", which is on the band's album Take a Look in the Mirror.[42] Limp Bizkit has recorded with multiple hip hop musicians including Method Man,[43]Lil Wayne,[44]Xzibit,[45]Redman,[45]DMX[46] and Snoop Dogg.[47]Linkin Park collaborated with hip hop musician Jay Z on their 2004 extended play Collision Course.[48]Kid Rock has recorded with hip hop musicians Eminem[49] and Snoop Dogg.[50] Trevor Baker of The Guardian wrote, "Bands such as Linkin Park, Korn and even the much reviled Limp Bizkit ... did far more to break down the artificial barriers between 'urban music' and rock than any of their more critically acceptable counterparts."[51]

Lyrics[edit]

Lyrics in nu metal songs are often angry or nihilistic;[29][33] many of the genre's lyrics focus on topics such as pain,[16][33] angst,[24][33] bullying,[3] emotional issues,[3][29] abandonment,[3][29] betrayal,[3] and personal alienation,[16][33] in a way similar to those of grunge.[3][16][33][52] A lot of nu metal lyrics that are about these topics tend to be in a very direct tone.[29] However, some nu metal songs have lyrics that are about other topics. P.O.D. have used positive lyrics about promise and hope.[53] The nu metal[54] song "Bodies" by Drowning Pool is about moshing.[55] Wayne Swinny of the nu metal band Saliva said that the band's song "Badass" was "meant to be one of those 'sports anthem kind of songs' ".[56]The Michigan Daily wrote about Limp Bizkit's lyrics, writing that the band "used the nu-metal sound as a way to spin testosterone fueled fantasies into snarky white-boy rap. Oddly, audiences took frontman Fred Durst more seriously than he wanted, failing to see the intentional silliness in many of his songs".[29] Limp Bizkit's lyrics also have been described as misogynistic.Dope's lyrics are usually about sex, drugs, parties, women, violence and relationships.[58] According to Josh Chesler of the Phoenix New Times, the lyrics of Deftones, who were once a nu metal band, "tend to have complex allusions and leave the songs open to many different interpretations."[59]

Fashion[edit]

Nu metal clothing typically consists of baggy pants,[25][60][61][62] shirts, and shorts,[24][63]JNCO jeans,[64][65]Adidas tracksuits,[65] sports jerseys,[66] baseball caps,[67] baggy hoodies,[62]cargo pants, and sweatpants.[68] Nu metal hairstyles and facial hairstyles include dreadlocks,[68] spiky hair,[60][66] chin beards,[61][68] bald heads,[68][69]goatees,[68]frosted tips,[62] and bleached or dyed hair.[60][68] Common accessories in nu metal fashion include wallet chains,[24][66][69] tattoos,[24][63][69] and piercings,[24][25][63][68] especially facial piercings.[62][69] Nu metal fashion has been compared to hip hop fashion.[25]

Some nu metal bands such as Hollywood Undead,[70]Motograter,[71]Mushroomhead,[72]Mudvayne,[73][74] and Slipknot[69][75] wear masks, jumpsuits, costumes, face paint, corpse paint or body paint. A few nu metal bands, such as Coal Chamber,[76]Evanescence,[77] and Kittie,[78] are known for having gothic appearances.

History[edit]

1980s–1993: Predecessors and influences[edit]

Many heavy metal, alternative metal, industrial, funk metal, alternative rock, rap metal, and industrial metal artists and bands of the 1980s and early 1990s have been credited with laying groundwork for the development of nu metal by combining heavy guitar riffs with pop music structures and drawing influences from subgenres of heavy metal and other music genres; Faith No More,[80][81]Primus,[80][82]Helmet,[83][84]Boo-Yaa T.R.I.B.E.,Fear Factory,24-7 Spyz,Shootyz Groove,Fishbone,Biohazard,Suicidal Tendencies,Infectious Grooves,Godflesh,[90]Red Hot Chili Peppers,[80][91]Nine Inch Nails,[92][93]White Zombie,[92]Mr. Bungle,[80]Prong,[94]Rage Against the Machine,[80] and Ministry[95] all have been highlighted as examples of this.

Groove metal and thrash metal bands of the same period such as Machine Head,Sepultura,[81][96]Metallica,[11][97]Pantera,[98]Slayer,[97] and Anthrax[97] all have been cited as influential to nu metal as well. For example, Anthrax pioneered the rap metal genre by combining hip hop and rap with heavy metal on their 1987 EP I'm the Man,[99] which laid groundwork for nu metal's development.[67] Korn's lead vocalist Jonathan Davis said about Pantera guitarist Dimebag Darrell, "if there was no Dimebag Darrell, there would be no Korn".[100]Tool, an alternative metal band cited as influential to nu metal,[101] influenced the nu metal bands Mudvayne,[102] Limp Bizkit,[103] and Otep.[104]

In the 1990s, bands described as "neo-metal" by the author Garry Sharpe-Young emerged; these bands include Pantera, Strapping Young Lad, Machine Head, Biohazard and Fear Factory. Sharpe-Young wrote that these bands "had chosen to strip metal down to its raw, primal element" and that "neo-metal paved the way for nu-metal".[106]

Nu metal is often influenced by hip hop.[12] hip hop musicians Dr. Dre and Ice Cube have been a big influence on nu metal creators and pioneers Korn;[107][108] guitarist Munky said the band were trying to emulate the samples of Dr. Dre's 1992 album The Chronic.[108] Munky and fellow Korn guitarist Head also said they tried to emulate samples by the hip hop group Cypress Hill.[107][109] Both the Geto Boys and N.W.A. also have been a major influence on Korn.[109]Fred Durst of Limp Bizkit has cited the hip hop group The Fat Boys as a major influence on him.[110] The nu metal band Papa Roach cited rapper Nas and hip hop groups Wu-Tang Clan and Fugees as influences.[111][112]Shifty Shellshock of the nu metal band Crazy Town cited Run–D.M.C. and Beastie Boys as influences.[113]Josey Scott of the nu metal band Saliva cited Run–D.M.C.,LL Cool J, Beastie Boys, Public Enemy, N.W.A., Chuck D, Doug E. Fresh, and Whodini as influences.[114]Sonny Sandoval of the nu metal band P.O.D. cited hip hop groups Boogie Down Productions and Run–D.M.C. as influences.[115] Linkin Park member Mike Shinoda's hip hop influences include Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, N.W.A., and the Juice Crew.[116]Chester Bennington, another member of Linkin Park, cited A Tribe Called Quest, KRS-One, Run–D.M.C., Public Enemy, N.W.A., Beastie Boys, and Rob Base as influences.[117] More rock-oriented hip hop acts such as Rage Against the Machine, Beastie Boys, and Red Hot Chili Peppers were also identified as inspirational to the genre by Stereogum writer Chris DeVille.[118] Hip hop group Run–DMC was one of the first groups to combine rap with rock,[119][120] paving the way for nu metal.[121]

1993–1998: Early development and rise[edit]

Joel McIver acknowledged Korn as the band that created and pioneered the nu metal genre with its demo Neidermayer's Mind, which was released in 1993. McIver also acknowledged Korn as the band that started the New Wave of American Heavy Metal, which is a heavy metal music movement that started in the 1990s.[124][125] The aggressive riffs of Korn, the rapping of Limp Bizkit, and the melodic ballads of Staind created the sonic template for nu metal.[101] The origins of the term "nu metal" are often attributed to the work of producer Ross Robinson, who has been called "The Godfather of Nu Metal" between producers. Robinson has produced for nu metal bands such as Korn,[127][128] Limp Bizkit[129] and Slipknot.[130][131] Many of the first nu metal bands, such as Korn[132] and Deftones,[133] came from California; however, the genre soon spread across the United States and many bands arose from various states, including Limp Bizkit from Florida,[101] Staind from Massachusetts, and Slipknot from Iowa.[135] In the book Brave Nu World, Tommy Udo wrote about the nu metal band Coal Chamber, "There's some evidence to suggest that Coal Chamber were the first band to whom the tag 'nu metal' was actually applied, in a live review in Spin magazine."

In 1994, Korn released their self-titled debut album, which is widely considered the first nu metal album.[107][137] Korn had experienced underground popularity at this time; their debut album peaked at number 72 on the Billboard 200.[139] In the same year, P.O.D.'s album Snuff the Punk was also released, which was later recognized as another early example of nu metal.[140] Sepultura's 1996 album Roots features nu metal elements that were considered influential to the genre,[96][141] while Roots itself was influenced by Korn's self-titled debut album.[96][142][143] Few bands were playing nu metal until 1997 when bands such as Coal Chamber,[144] Limp Bizkit,[145] and Papa Roach[146] all released their debut albums. Attention through MTV and Ozzy Osbourne's 1995 introduction of Ozzfest was integral to the launching of the careers of many nu metal bands, including Limp Bizkit in 1998.

1998–2003: Mainstream popularity[edit]

Nu metal began to rise in popularity when Korn's 1996 album Life Is Peachy peaked at number 3 on the Billboard 200[139] and sold 106,000 copies in its first week of release. In 1998, Korn's third album Follow the Leader peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200,[139] was certified 5× platinum,[150] and paved the way for other nu metal bands.[51] At this point, many nu metal bands were signed to major record labels,[6] and were playing combinations of heavy metal, hip hop, industrial, grunge and hardcore punk styles.[6] Hip hop artists Vanilla Ice[151][152] and Cypress Hill,[153] along with heavy metal bands Sepultura,[96][141][151] Primus,[154][155] Fear Factory,[151][156] Machine Head,[158] and Slayer[159] released albums that draw from the nu metal genre.

In 1999, Korn's fourth studio album Issues peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200.[139][160] The album was certified 3× platinum in one month.[161] The album sold at least 573,000 copies in its first week of release[160] and its first single "Falling Away From Me" peaked at number 8 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles chart.[162] A little before the album was released, Korn appeared on an episode of South Park titled "Korn's Groovy Pirate Ghost Mystery", in which "Falling Away from Me" was premiered.[163][164] During the late 1990s and early 2000s, multiple nu metal bands such as Korn,[165][166] Limp Bizkit[167] and P.O.D.[169][170] appeared repeatedly on MTV's Total Request Live.

The Woodstock 1999 festival featured multiple nu metal artists and bands such as Korn, Kid Rock, Godsmack, Limp Bizkit and Sevendust.[173][174][175] During and after Limp Bizkit's performance at the festival, violence occurred and people tore plywood from the walls during the performance of the band's song "Break Stuff".[176][177] Several sexual assaults were reported to have happened during the festival;[178] a rape that was reported during Limp Bizkit's performance, and gang rape was reported to have occurred during Korn's set at the festival.[179] Despite the incidents at the festival, Limp Bizkit's popularity and the sales of their then-recent album Significant Other were not affected.[176] The album peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200, selling 643,874 copies in its first week of release, topping over one million sold in two weeks, and eventually being certified 7x platinum in 2001.[181]Significant Other sold at least 7,237,123 copies in the United States.[182]

Orgy became popular in the late 1990s with their album Candyass, which was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999.[183] The band's cover of "Blue Monday" by New Order peaked at number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100.[184] Godsmack's self-titled debut album was released in 1998 and was certified 4× platinum in December 2001.[185] In April 1999, Kid Rock's album Devil Without a Cause was certified by gold by the RIAA.[186] The following month, Devil Without a Cause, as Kid Rock predicted, went platinum.[186] The album sold at least 9,300,000 copies in the United States[187] and was certified 11x platinum.[186] In 1999, Slipknot emerged with an extremely heavy nu metal sound, releasing their self-titled album, which was certified platinum in 2000 and 2x platinum in 2005.[188] In a review of the band's self-titled album, Rick Anderson of AllMusic wrote about Slipknot, "You thought Limp Bizkit was hard? They're the Osmonds. These guys are something else entirely."[189]

In 1999, Staind's second album Dysfunction was released; the track "Mudshovel" peaked at number 10 on the Mainstream Rock chart.[190]Dysfunction was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA.[191] In 2000, Limp Bizkit's third studio album Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water set a record for highest week-one sales of a rock album, selling over 1,000,000 copies in the United States in its first week of release—400,000 of which sold on its first day of release, making it the fastest-selling rock album ever and breaking the world record held for seven years by Pearl Jam's Vs.[192]Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water by Limp Bizkit was certified 6x platinum[193] and sold at least 8,000,000 copies in the United States.[194] That same year, both Papa Roach's second studio album Infest[195] and Disturbed's debut studio album The Sickness[196] were released. The RIAA certified The Sickness 4× platinum[197] and Infest 3× platinum.[198] Disturbed's song "Down with the Sickness" was certified platinum by the RIAA.[199] Papa Roach's song "Last Resort" peaked at number 57 on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number 1 on the Modern Rock Tracks chart.[200] In 2000, P.O.D.'s album The Fundamental Elements of Southtown went platinum in the United States[201] and was the 143rd best-selling album of 2000.[202] The album's song "Rock the Party (Off the Hook)" went to number 1 on MTV's Total Request Live.[203] In 2000, the hip hop group Cypress Hill released their fifth studio album Skull & Bones, which features a nu metal and rap metal style.[67][153] The album went platinum in the United States in two months.[204] During the early 2000s, the nu metal band Incubus[205][207][208][209][210] was very popular and made the albums Make Yourself and Morning View, which both were certified 2x platinum by the RIAA.[211][212]

Late in 2000, Linkin Park released their debut album Hybrid Theory, which was the best-selling debut album by any artist of any genre in the 21st century.[213] The album was also the best-selling album of 2001,[214] selling more than albums such as Celebrity by NSYNC and Hot Shot by Shaggy.[215] Linkin Park earned a Grammy Award for their second single "Crawling".[216] Their fourth single, "In the End", was released late in 2001 and peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 in March 2002.[217][218] In 2001, Linkin Park's album Hybrid Theory sold 4,800,000 copies in the United States, making it the highest-selling album of the year.[214][215] Linkin Park's album Hybrid Theory was certified diamond by the RIAA[219] and sold at least 10,222,000 copies in the United States.[220] In 2000, Godsmack released their second studio album Awake, which was certified 2x platinum in March 2002.[221] The album's title track peaked at number 1 on the Mainstream Rock chart.[222] Both the album's title track and the song "Sick of Life" have been featured on the United States Navy's television commercials.[223]

Crazy Town's debut album The Gift of Game peaked at number 9 on the Billboard 200,[224] went platinum in February 2001,[225] and sold at least 1,500,000 copies in the United States.[226] Worldwide, the album sold at least 2,500,000 copies.[227] Staind's 2001 album Break the Cycle debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200[190] with at least 716,000 copies sold in its first week of release,[228] selling more than albums such as Survivor by Destiny's Child, Lateralus by Tool and Miss E... So Addictive by Missy Elliott.[228][229]Break the Cycle by Staind was certified 5x platinum by the RIAA in 2003.[230] In March 2001, Saliva released their second album Every Six Seconds

Fred Durst of nu metal band Limp Bizkit
Primus, a common influence to nu metal bands, uses elements of diverse genres such as speed metal, thrash metal, punk rock and funk.[79]
Producer Rick Rubin helped create rap rock in the 1980s with hip hop groups such as the Beastie Boys and Run-D.M.C.[105]
Korn (pictured) helped launch nu metal into the mainstream.
The nu metal band Slipknot performing in Buenos Aires in 2005.
Disturbed performing in 2005
Aaron Lewis, the vocalist of Staind, performing in August 2001.

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